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AMULETS 


AMULETS 


ILLUSTRATED    BY    THE    EGYPTIAN    COLLECTION    IN 
UNIVERSITY    COLLEGE,    LONDON 


BY 

W:     M.     FLINDERS     PETRIE 

HON     D.C.L.,    LL.D.,    LITT.D.,    PH.D.,    F.R.S.,    F.B.A.,    HON.    F.S.A.    (SCOT.),    A.R.I.B.A.,    MEMBER    OF   THE    ROYAL   IRISH    ACADEMY, 
MEMBER    OF   THE    IMPERIAL   GERMAN   ARCH^OLOGICAL    INSTITUTE,    CORRESPONDING    MEMBER    OF   THE    SOCIETY 
OF    ANTHROPOLOGY,    BERLIN  ;    MEMBER    OF  THE    ITALIAN    SOCIETY    OF  ANTHROPOLOGY  ;    MEMBER 
OF    THE    ROMAN    SOCIETY    OF   ANTHROPOLOGY;    MEMBER    OF   THE   SOCIETY   OF 
NORTHERN    ANTIQUARIES;    MEMBER    OF   THE   AMERICAN    PHILO- 
SOPHICAL SOCIETY;    EDWARDS  PROFESSOR  OF 

EGYPTOLOGY,    UNIVERSITY   OF  LONDON 


i 


LONDON 

CONSTABLE   &   COMPANY   LTD 
10  ORANGE   STREET   LEICESTER   SQUARE  WC 

1914 


CONTENTS 


CHAPTER  I. 

THE  PRINCIPLES  OF  AMULETS. 

8RCT. 

1.  The  belief  in  amulets 

2.  Meaning  of  tho  name 

3.  Purpose  of  amulets 

4.  Five  theories  of  amulets         .... 

5.  Examples  of  each  theory       .... 

6.  The  doctrine  of  similars          .... 

7.  Lower  individual  beliefs        .... 

8.  Primitive  modes  of  thought   .... 

9.  Organic  amulets 

10.  The  flux  of  beliefs 

CHAPTER  II. 
EGYPTIAN  AMULETS. 

11.  Scope  of  amulets 

12.  Limitations  of  the  class 

13.  Growth  of  funereal  amulets  .... 

14.  Material  for  study .  ... 

15.  Arrangement  of  the  catalogue 

16.  Materials  named    ...... 

17.  Classification . 

System  of  the  catalogue         .... 

CHAPTEE  III. 

AMULETS  OF  SIMILARS.    (29.)) 

NO. 

1.  Head  bearded.  (3) 

2.  Face.  (23) 

3.  Uzat  eye.  (2) 

4.  Eye.  (4) 

5.  Ear.  (4) 

6.  Tongue.  (2) 

7.  Heart.  (41) 

8.  Breast.  (3) 

9.  Arm.  (1) 

10.  Two  arms,  lea.  (1) 

11.  Hand  open.  (12) 

12.  Fist  clenched.  (17) 

13.  Fist,  thumb  between  fingers.  (2)  . 

14.  Two  hands  side  by  side.  (1)    . 

15.  Leg.   (15) 

16.  Phallus.  (9) 

17.  Sma.  (5) 

18.  Frog  and  toad.  (20) 

19.  Fly.  (32) 

20.  Papyrus  sceptre.  (26) 

21.  Papyrus  on  plaque.  (4) 

22.  Jackal  head.  (27) 

23.  Leopard  head.  (1) 

24.  Claw.  (10) 

25.  Tooth.  (8) 

26.  Locust.  (2) 


1 
1 

1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 


9 
9 
10 
10 
10 
10 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
14 


CHAPTEE  IV. 

AMULETS  OF  POWKHS.    (-.'37) 

NO, 

PACI 

27. 

Wagtail,  ur.  (3)     

.     14 

28. 

Human-headed  bird,  la.  (5)  . 

.     14 

29. 

Duckling,  za.  (2)    

.     14 

30. 

Man's  girdle  tie,  onkh.  (7)      . 

.     14 

31. 

Nefer.  (8)       

.     14 

32. 

Sistrum.  (3)   ....... 

.     15 

33. 

Counterpoise,  menat.  (6) 

15 

34. 

Head-rest.  (12)      

.     15 

35. 

Zad.  (34)        

.     15 

36. 

Square.  (12)  

.     16 

37. 

Plummet.  (10)        

.      16 

38. 

Forked  lance.  (10)  

.     16 

39. 

Ostrich  plumes.  (11)      

.     16 

40. 

Two  plumes,  disc  and  horns.  (4)    . 

.     16 

41. 

Pair  of  feathers.  (1) 

.     17 

42. 

Rising  sun.  (3)       

.     17 

43. 

Disc  of  sun.  (2)      

.     17 

44. 

Crowned  sun.  (1)   

.     17 

45. 

Bark  of  the  moon.  (4)    

.     17 

46. 

Stairs.  (1)       

.     17 

47. 

Hornet.  (-1)     

.     17 

48. 

White  crown.  (9)    

.     17 

49. 

Red  crown.  (17)     

.     18 

50. 

Double  crown  on  nf!>.   O        .         .         .         . 

.     18 

51. 

Vulture  and  uraeus.  O  

.     18 

52. 

Royal  crook.  0       

.      18 

53. 

Royal  scourge.  (1)  

.     18 

54. 

Shepherd's  stick,  uas.  (10)     .... 

.     18 

55. 

Disc  mace.  (5)        

.     18 

56. 

Pear  mace.  (20)      

.     IS 

57. 

Feathers  and  scourge.  O 

.      IS 

58. 

Uraeus  serpent.  (19)      

.      18 

59. 

Man  with  palms.  (5)       

.      1!) 

60. 

Bound  captive.  (8)          

.      19 

61. 

Figure  with  necklaces.  (1)     . 

.     19 

CHAPTER  V. 


AMULETS  OF  PKOPERTY.    (si) 


62.  Ox  head.   (18) 

63.  Cow,  legs  tied.  (7) . 

64.  Gazelle.  (1)    . 

65.  Joint  of  meat.  (1)  . 

66.  Goose  or  duck.  0  . 

67.  Dish  on  mat,  hutep.  O 

68.  Altar  with  cakes.  (5) 

69.  Date.  (1) 

70.  Vase.  (16)      . 

71.  Collar.  (2)      . 

72.  Clothing.  (5). 

73.  Eoyal  head-dress.  O 


10 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
L'O 
20 
21 
21 


CONTENTS 


74.  Comb.  (5)       . 

75.  Spear  head.  O 

76.  Writing  tablet.  (2) 

77.  Name  badge.  (5)    . 

78.  Cartouche.  (3) 

79.  Seal.  (6) 

80.  Seal  ring.  (1) 

81.  Circle  of  cord.  (2)  . 

82.  Slave  figure.  (1)     . 


83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
10G. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 
118. 
119. 
120. 
121. 
122. 
123. 
124. 
125. 
126. 
127. 
128. 
129. 
130. 
131. 
132. 
133. 
134. 
135. 
136. 
137. 


CHAPTER  VI. 
PROTECTIVE  AMULETS.    (350) 

Sun  and  wings.  (2) 

Sun  and  uraei.  (2) 

Crescent.  (8) 

Mummy.  (2) 

Mummy  on  bier.  (4) 

Girdle  of  Isis,  that.  (23)          .... 

Scarab,  flat  base.  (32) 

Scarab,  inscribed.  (26) 

Pectoral.  (7) 

Scarab  with  legs.  (50) 

Scarab  winged.  (8) 

Vulture  standing.  (7) 

Vulture  spread.  (4) 

Serpent.  (7) 

Serpent  head.  (12) 

Cobra  on  case.  (8) ...... 

Amphisbaena  on  case.  (2) 

Phagrus  eel  on  case.  (3)         .... 

Lizard  on  case.  (7) 

Taurt  on  case.  ( 1 ) 

Shrew  mouse  on  case.  (1) 

Horn.  (1) 

Bone.  (3) 

Coral.  (1) 

Cyj/raea  shell.  (7)  . 

Nerita  shell.  (3) 

Mitra  shell.  (2) 

C'onus  shell.  (4)       . 

Cardium  shell.  (9) 

Meleagrina  shell.  (12) 

Cleopatra  shell.  (4) 

Pectuncuhu  shell.  (2)      ..... 

Polinices  shell.  (1) 

Cassis  shell.  (1)      . 

Murex  shell.  (1) 

Helix  shell.  (8) 

Clanculus  shell,  (1) 

Turbo  shell.  (1) 

Oliva  shell.  (2) 

Terebra  shell.  (2) 

Stone  implement.  (12) 

Bell.  (5) 

Door  bolt.  (1) 

Seated  prince.  (2)  . 

Princess.  (2) 

Medusa  head,  (3) 

Bulla.  (12) 

Forehead  pendant.  (21) 

Knotted  cord.  (7) 

Woven  charm.  (1) 

Charm  case.  (18) 

Hypocephalus.  (4) 

Inscribed  stone,  Greek.  (26) .... 

Inscribed  stone,  non-Greek.  (11)  . 

Cross.  (44) 


PAD* 
21 

21 

21 
21 
21 
22 
22 
22 
22 


22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
29 
29 
29 
29 
30 
30 
32 
32 


NO. 

138. 
139. 
140. 
141. 
142. 
143. 
144. 
145. 
146. 
147. 
148. 
149. 
150. 
151. 
152. 
153. 
154. 
155. 
156. 
157. 
158. 
159. 
160. 
161. 
162. 
163. 
164. 
165. 
166. 
167. 
168. 
169. 
170. 
171. 
172. 
173. 
174. 
175. 
176. 
177. 
178. 
179. 


CHAPTER  VII. 

HUMAN-HEADED  GODS.    (448) 


Uzat  eye,  usual.  (86) 
,,        unusual.  (46). 
,,        multiple.  (14). 
„        with  gods.  (12) 
„        inscribed.  (10) 

Horus  the  hunter.  (1)    . 

Horns  on  crocodiles.  (9) 

Horus  the  child.  (26)     . 

Horus  on  the  lotus.  (1) . 

Head  of  Horus.  (2) 

Isis  and  Horus.  (21) 

Isis.  (17)         .... 

Isis  mourning.  (8). 

Isis  Pharia.  (3)      . 

Isis,  Nebhat,  and  Horus.  (6) 

Groups  of  goddesses.  (2) 

Nebhat.  (10)  . 

Nebhat  mourning.  (2)   . 

Osiris,  Isis,  and  Horus.  (4)     . 

Osiris.  (13)     .... 

Heart  of  Osiris.  (18) 

Oracular  bust.  (9)  . 

Horus  and  Min.  (1) 

Min.  (11)       .... 

Amen.  (5) 

Amen,  Mut,  and  Khonsu.  (1) 

Mut.  (10)       .... 

Khonsu.  (2)   . 

Anhur.  (1)     . 

Shu.  (11)        .... 

Neit.  (3)        .... 

Unknown  deities.  (6) 

Hathor.  (16)  .... 

Head  of  Hathor.  (7)       . 

Maot.  (1)        .... 

Hat-inehyt.  (2)      . 

Selket.  (2)      . 

Nefertum.  (11) 

Ptah  Seker.  (25)     . 

Ptah.  (5)        .... 

Dwarf.  (2)      .... 

Saints.  (6)       .... 


CHAPTER  VIII. 
ANIMAL-HEADED  GODS.    (^60) 


180.  Horus.  (15)    . 

181.  Ra.  (16) 

182.  Four  sons  of  Ra.  (19)     . 

183.  Set.  (1)  . 

184.  Sphinx,  male.  (4)  . 

185.  Sphinx,  female.  (15) 

186.  Hathor,  cow-headed.  (4) 

187.  Khnumu.  (9). 

188.  Bes.  (36) 

189.  Bes,  unusual.  (10) . 

190.  Bes  head.  (26) 

191.  Tahuti  of  Panebes.  (1)   . 

192.  Mahes.  (8)      . 

193.  Anhur  and  Tefnut.  (2)  . 

194.  Sekhmet  or  Bastet.  (24). 

195.  Aegis  of  Bastet.  (15) 

196.  Shu  and  Tefnut.  (3) 

197.  Anpu.  (23)     . 

198.  Upuatu.  (1)   . 


PAOK 

32 

33 
33 
33 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
36 
36 
36 
36 

,  36 
37 
37 
37 
37 
37 

,  37 
37 
37 

,  37 

.  37 

.  37 

.  38 

,  38 

38 

38 

38 

38 

.  38 

.  38 

39 


39 
39 
39 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 
42 
42 
42 
42 


VI 


CONTENTS 


199.  Jackal-headed  archer.  (1) 

200.  Shrewmouse  figure.  (1) . 

201.  Sebek.  (1) 

202.  Tehuti.  (21) 

203.  Serpent-headed  god.  (4)         ... 

CHAPTER  IX. 
ANIMAL  GODS.    (442) 

204.  Ape  standing.  (7) 

205.  Ape  seated.  (4) 

206.  Baboon.  (12) 

207.  Apis  bull.  (10) 

208.  Hathor  cow.  (6) 

209.  Hathor  cow  on  square.  (5)     . 

210.  Hathor  head.  (5) 

211.  Ram.  (11) 

212.  Ram's  head.  (21) 

213.  Hare.  (4) 

214.  Ibex.  (2) 

215.  Barbary  sheop.  (1)          .... 

216.  Klipspringer.  (1) 

217.  Camel.  (1) 

218.  Hawk-headed  sphinx.  (1)       . 

219.  Lion.  (16) 

220.  Two  lion  fore-parts.  (7). 

221.  Lion's  head.  (4) 

222.  Lion  and  bull  fore-parts.  O    . 

223.  Two  bull  fore-parts.  (3). 

224.  Cat.  (16) 

225.  Cat  in  shrine.  (2) 

226.  Two  cats  on  column.  (2)        ... 

227.  Cat  and  kittens    (3)        .... 

228.  Set  animal.  (2) 

229.  Jackal  standing.  (5)       .... 

230.  Two  jackal  heads.  (1)     . 

231.  Jackal  couchant.  (8)       .... 

232.  Shrew  mouse.  (5) 

233.  Dog.  (6) 

234.  Pig.  (5) 

235.  Hippopotamus.  (5)         .... 

236.  Taurt.  (51) 

237.  Hippopotamus  head.  (16) 

238.  Hedgehog.  (1) 


PACK 

42 
42 
42 
42 
43 


43 
43 
43 
43 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 


HO. 

239.  Turtle.  (4) 

240.  Crocodile.  (18) 

241.  Waran.  (1) 

242.  Lizard.  (1) 

243.  Mt-ntu  standard.  (7)       ... 

244.  Hawk-headed  sphinx.  (1)      . 

245.  Hawk,  falcon.  (59) 

246.  Ostrich.  (1) 

247.  Ibis.  (12) 

248.  Vulture.  (2) 

249.  Vulture  flying.  (2)         ... 

250.  Goat-sucker.  (2)    . 

251.  Bird  heads.  (6)       .... 

252.  Coptic  birds.  (5)     . 

253.  Bird's  foot.  (1)       .... 

254.  Serpent  with  arms,  Nehebka.  (5)     . 

255.  Qarmut,  nar.  (3)    .... 

256.  Oxyrhynkhos.  (1)  .         . 

257.  Bulti.  (11) 

258.  Electric  fish.  (7)     . 

259.  Lepidotos.  0 

260.  Scorpion.   (4) 

261.  Green  beetle.  (6)   . 

262.  Shuttle.  (2) 

263.  Woman  with  offerings.  (1)     . 

264.  Figure  in  tall  head-dress.  (1) 

265.  Figure  in  long  robe.  (2) 
26H.  Figure  in  pointed  cap.  (2) 

267.  Flower.  (:i) 

268.  Palm  column.  (1)  . 

269.  Bunch  of  grapes.  (1) 

270.  Flowering  reed.  (1)        ... 

271.  Seed  vessel.  (3)       .... 

272.  Unknown.  (2)        .... 

273.  Two  fingers.  (11)    . 

274.  Uncertain  pendants.  (2) 

275.  Star.  (2) 

CHAPTER  X. 

Positions  of  amulets 
Properties  of  stones 
List  of  groups  of  amulets 


47 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
60 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
51 
61 
51 
51 
51 
51 


51 
52 
53 


INDEX  55 


Vll 


LIST    OF    PLATES 


SIMILARS  : 

I.        PARTS  OF  HUMAN  BODY          .         .          1 — 17 

II.        ANIMAL  AND  VEGETABLE         .         .  18 — 26 

POWERS  : 

III.  SYMBOLIC  HIEROGLYPHS  .         .  27 — 35 

IV.  SYMBOLS  OF  ABILITY  AND  AUTHORITY  36 — 59 


PROPERTY : 
V.        FUNEREAL  OFFERINGS 

POSSESSIONS    ..... 
VI 

[    PROTECTION,  CELESTIAL  . 

PROTECTION  : 

VII.  MUMMY,  GIRDLE,  FLAT  SCARAB 

VIII.  INSCRIBED  SCARAB,  BACKS 

IX.  INSCRIBED  SCARAB,  FRONTS     . 

X.  PECTORALS      

XI.  SCARAB  WITH  LEGS  AND  WINGS 

XII.  VULTURE,  SERPENT 

XIII.  CASES  FOR  REPTILES 

XIV.  HORN  AND  SHELLS. 

XV.        SHELLS,       IMPLEMENTS,       FIGURES, 

BULLAE     ..... 

XVI.  FOREHEAD  PENDANTS 

XVII.  KNOTTED  CORDS     .... 

XVIII.  KNOTTED  CORDS     .... 

XIX.  CORDS,  WEAVING,  CHARM  CASES 

XX.  HYPOCEPHALI          .... 

XXI.  INSCRIBED  STONES,  GREEK 

XXII.  INSCRIBED  STONES,  NON-GREEK 

XXIII.  INSCRIBED  STONES,  SEMITIC,  CROSS. 

HUMAN  GODS  : 

XXIV.  EYE  OF  HORUS       . 

XXV.        EYE  OF  HORUS       .         .         .         . 

XXVI.        HORUS,  Isis 

XXVII.        HORUS,  Isis,  OSIRIS,  NEBHAT          . 


(60,  61)  62—72 

74—82 
83—85 


HUMAN  GODS — continued. 
XXVIII.        OSIRIS,  HEART  OF  OSIRIS 
XXIX.        ORACULAR  BUSTS    . 
XXX.        MIN  TO  NEFERTUM 

HUMAN  GODS  :   DWARFS,  SADJTS 


XXXI. 


(  ANIMAL-HEADED  GODS  :    HORUS-RA 
ANIMAL-HEADED  GODS  : 


86—89 

XXXVI. 

90 

90 

91 

J 

XXXVII. 

92,    93 

94  —  98 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

99—103 

XL. 

104—114 

XLI. 

115—129 

XLII. 

130 

XLIII. 

131 

XLIV. 

131 

XLV. 

131—133 

XLVI. 

134 

XLVII. 

135 

XLVIII. 

135,    136 

136,    137 

XLIX. 

L. 

138—141 

LI. 

138—142 

LII. 

143—149 

LIII. 

149—156 

LIV. 

XXXII.        FOUR  SONS  OF  RA 

XXXIII.  SET,  SPHINX,  HATHOR,  KHNUMU,  BBS 

XXXIV.  BBS,  TAHUTI,  MAKES      . 
XXXV.        ANHUR    WITH    TEFNUT,    SEKHMET, 

BASTET     ..... 
SHU  WITH  TEFNUT,  JACKAL,  SEBEK, 
TEHUTI 

ANIMAL  GODS  : 

APE,  BULL,  Cow    .... 

Cow,  SHEEP,  HARE,  LION 

LION,  CAT,  JACKAL 

SHREW    MOUSE,   DOG,    PIG,    HIPPO- 
POTAMUS .... 

REPTILES,  BIRDS    .... 

BIRDS    ...... 

ANIMAL  GODS,  AND  VARIOUS  OBJECTS 
ADDENDA. 
ADDENDA. 
ADDENDA. 
ADDENDA. 

LISTS  OF  AMULETS,  MACGREGOR  PAPY- 
RUS AND  DENDEREH. 
BRONZE  GNOSTIC  AMULET  . 
PLANS  OF  AMULETS  ON  MUMMIES 
PLANS  OF  AMULETS  ON  MUMMIES 
PLANS  OF  AMULETS  ON  MUMMIES 
PLANS  OF  AMULETS  ON  MUMMIES 
INDEX  TO  AMULETS  IN  POSITION. 


157,  158 
159 

160—176 
176—179 
180,  181 

182 

183—188 
189—192 

193—195 
196—203 

204—209 
210—219 
220—231 

232—237 
238—245 
245—262 
263—274 


135aa 
1—5 

6—12 
13—18 
19—24 


A. 


It  is  intended  that  this  volume  shall  be  the  first  of  a  series 
dealing  with  various  branches  of  Egyptian  Archaeology,  based  upon 
the  collection  at  University  College. 

In  the  succeeding  volumes,  the  Scarabs,  Cylinders,  Button  Seals, 
Tools,  Glass,  Beads  and  other  subjects  will  be  discussed  and  illus- 
trated, with  reference  also  to  other  collections. 


AMULETS 


CHAPTER  I 
THE    PRINCIPLES    OF    AMULETS 


1.  THE  present  study  of  Egyptian  amulets  is  based  upon 
the  University  College  collection,  which  I  have  tried  to 
make  as  varied  as  possible  ;  some  two  hundred  and  seventy 
different  kinds  of  amulets  are  here  described,  together  with 
a  summary  of  those  in  some  other  collections,  in  order  to 
show  the   numbers   and   the  materials  of  which   amulets 
were  usually  made.     To  understand  the  purpose  of  these 
amulets,  it  is  needful  to  gain  some  general  ideas  from  the 
use  of  amulets  in  other  lands.     The  belief  in  the  magic 
effect  of  inanimate  objects  on  the  course  of  events  is  one  of 
the  lower  stages  of  the  human  mind  in  seeking  for  principles 
of  natural  action ;  it  belongs  to  a  condition  of  the  intellect 
so  low  as  to  be  incapable  of  clear  reason  about  cause  and 
effect.     Yet  it  has  become  so  ingrained  a  habit  of  thought 
during  the  vast  ages  before  observation  and  induction  were 
developed,  that  it  survives  the  rise  of  knowledge  and  reason- 
ing among  most  people.     The   use   of  amulets  is   by   no 
means  equally  general  in  all  races ;  the  lowest  of  mankind 
— the  Tasmanians — had  great  confidence  in  the  power  of 
amulets,  the  Shilluks  of  the  Sudan  wear  them  in  a  bunch, 
the  Arabs  have  great  faith  in  charms  which  are  worn,  and 
Southern  Italy — in  our  own,  as  in  Pliny's  time — abounds  in 
amulets.     Strange  to  say,  a  large  part  of  the  children  of  the 
lower  classes  in  England  wear  them  ;  and  the  extent  to 
which  persons  of  supposed  education  will  wear  charms  and 
mascots  is  an  extraordinary  revelation  of  the  real  fatuity 
and  savagery  of  the  mind  of  modern  man.    Yet  other  races 
seem  early  to  have  abandoned  such   thoughtless  beliefs. 
The  Veddahs  and  the  Algerians — apart  from  Arab  influence 
— avoid  amulets,  and  there  is  no  allusion  to  amulets  in  the 
minute  personal  details  of  the  Icelandic  and  Norse  Sagas. 
What  is  now  required  is  an  ethnological  study  of  diffusion 
of  amulets,  which  might  throw  light  on  the  connections  of 
various  peoples. 

2.  What  is  an  amulet,  and  why  is  it  used  ?    The  name  still 
defines  it  very  well  after  two  thousand  years,  and  shows  one 
line  of  diffusion  of  the  idea.     The  Arabic  hamulet,  a  freight, 
burden,  or  thing  carried,  has  passed  in  ancient  times  into 
the  west,  as  it  had  originated  the  Latin  amuletus  as  early  as 


the  time  of  Pliny.  It  seems  most  likely  that  the  name 
had  travelled  with  the  Phoenicians,  as  they  were  the  only 
source  of  Semitic  words  in  the  western  seas  before  the 
Roman  age ;  perhaps  Carthage  was  the  intermediary.  The 
amulet  therefore  means  something  carried  about  by  the 
wearer,  in  order  to  get  some  magical  benefits  from  it,  apart 
from  any  material  use.  In  Egypt  such  amulets  were  also 
put  upon  the  dead  for  benefiting  them  in  a  future 
existence;  and  we  can  hardly  deny  the  name  to  some  kinds 
of  objects  copied  from  personal  amulets,  and  set  up 
stationary  in  the  house.  In  the  records  of  amulets  there  is 
a  great  confusion  with  actual  medicines,  which  we  should 
nowadays  recognise  as  acting  by  natural  causes.  The 
line  between  Nature  and  magic  has  been  but  very  slowly 
defined  ;  and  what  we  look  on  as  mere  superstitions  were 
regarded  as  soundly  logical  remedies  two  thousand,  or 
even  two  hundred,  years  ago.  In  extracting  ideas  from 
ancient  writers  it  is  therefore  needful  to  set  aside  all  internal 
remedies,  and  some  external  ones  which  might  be  actually 
medicinal. 

3.  The  meaning  of  each  of  the  amulets,  and  the  purpose 
for  which  it  was  carried,  is  here  considered,  as  that  is  the 
real  spirit  and  essence  of  the  subject.  Merely  to  catalogue 
amulets  without  any  regard  to  their  meaning,  is  much  like 
collecting  pretty  shells  without  knowing  anything  of  the 
creatures  which  produce  them.  The  recent  works  of 
Prof.  Bellucci,  of  Perugia,  on  the  Italian  amulets — ancient 
and  modern — have  set  an  excellent  example  of  the  intelli- 
gent study  of  the  subject.  A  paper  by  Cornm.  Boni  should 
be  noted  for  its  wide  view  (Nuova  Antologia,  October  1st, 
1912).  Various  general  principles  of  the  purpose  of  amulets 
have  been  proposed,  or  might  be  considered.  But,  so  far, 
the  different  theories  have  not  been  weeded  by  means  of  the 
test  of  actual  instances.  There  may  have  been  several 
different  principles  or  starting  points  for  the  adoption  of 
amulets,  or  possibly  only  one  broad  idea  has  developed  in 
various  ways.  To  get  some  insight  upon  this,  it  is 
necessary  to  try  how  far  different  instances  can  be  explained 
by  each  view. 


THE    PRINCIPLES     OF     AMULETS 


4.  The  explanations  that  are  the  more  obvious  are  five:— 

(A)  The    psychic  effect  of  giving  confidence  and  self- 
reliance,  and  the  intent  to  live ;  with  the  result  that  the 
wearer  would  be  thus  fortified  to  steer  through  dangers 
without  faltering,  or  would  be  saved   from  that  terrible 
weakening  due  to  fear,  which  often  kills  men  as  surely  as 
knife  or  poison  kills.    To  possess  a  charm  which  would 
defy  tabu  would   be  a  vast  advantage  in  lower  forms  of 

culture. 

(B)  The  direction  of  thought  to  any  physical  weakness 
or  disease,  may  have  a  very  beneficial  effect  on  illness  ;  and 
the  possession  of  an  amulet  supposed  to  benefit  the  patient, 
may  easily  act  as  a  faith-healer  and  promote  real  recovery. 

(C)  The  idea  of  a  double  or  alter  ego  of  different  organs, 
connected  with  them  in  a  mystic  way,  may  be  a  purpose  of 
amulets.     In  the  tale  of  Anpu  and  Bata,  the  heart  of  Bata 
is  set  in  a  tree,  and  anything  that  happens  to  it  happens 
also  to  him.     So  it  might  be  imagined  that  a  kidney-stone, 
a  blood-stone,    an    eye-stone,   or    various    other    objects 
supposed  to  be  connected  with  different  organs,  would  by 
the  care  and  attention  paid  to  them  have  a  reflex  action  in 
strengthening  the  organ  involved. 

(D)  The  provision  of  a  vicarious  double,  to  which  evils 
and  diseases  may  be  transferred  from  the  body.     An  object 
resembling  the  disease,  or  a  model  of  the  organ,  might  be 
supposed  to  receive  the  attacks  of  the  malignant  spirits  to 
whom  diseases  are  usually  credited,  and  so  save  the  real 
person. 

(E)  The    influence   often   called   "sympathetic   magic" 
which  might    perhaps    best   be   named    "  the  doctrine   of 
similars."     Objects  which  have  a  similarity  one  to  another, 
are  supposed  to  be  necessarily  connected ;  they  are  in  touch 
with  the   abstract   quality   or  influence  which  has  to   be 
evoked  :  they  generally  act  by  producing  a   similarity  in 
the  person,  but  otherwise  by  averting  a  similarity,  on  the 
plea  that  the  event  has  already  taken  place,  and  cannot 
therefore  happen  again. 

No  doubt  the  great  majority  of  charms  and  amulets 
recorded  by  writers,  have  merely  been  selected  by  reason  of 
casual  connection.  When  any  unusual  event  happened — 
good  or  bad — the  person  looked  for  some  cause  in  his  own 
surroundings ;  and  if  he  carried,  or  did,  anything  unusual, 
it  was  naturally  connected  with  the  event.  Then,  no  doubt, 
there  was  much  theorizing  from  very  mixed  assumptions, 
in  order  to  construct  a  charm  for  a  given  purpose.  How 
far  human  folly  can  go  in  such  a  way  anyone  may  see  in 
the  tangible  field  of  medicine  by  referring  to  ancient 
prescriptions. 

When  we  look  at  the  various  possible  motives  for  the  use 
of  amulets  stated  above,  we  may  doubt  whether  any  one 
motive  can  account  for  the  whole  system,  or  whether 
several  different  motives  have  not  been  followed.  Can  all 
examples  come  under  one  explanation  ?  or  how  many 
explanations  are  needful  ? 

5.  The  only  way  to  study  this  is  to  select  test  instances, 


and  see  whether  there  be  cases  which  can  be  explained  by 
only  one  motive,  or  only  by  another.    To  this  we  proceed. 

(A)  The  Confidence  theory  will  explain  such  cases  as  the 
wearing  of  part  of  a  bear  in  order  to  give  strength  (Eskimo), 
a  leopard's  claw  to  protect  from  wild  beasts  (Central  Africa), 
dog's  teeth  to  protect  from  a  mad  dog  (Italy),  a  figure  of  a 
siren  for  security  (It.),  a  lizard  with  a  forked  tail  to  get 
luck  (It.),  and  the  wearing  of  written  charms.  But  each 
of  these  examples  can  equally  be  explained  by  (E),  the  effect 
of  similars. 

Other  examples,  such  as  a  serpent's  skin  worn  to  guard 
against  the  bite  of  reptiles,  might  be  explained  by  (C),  (D) 
or  (E).  Further  examples  are  the  figure  of  a  heart  worn 
for  heart  disease  (It.),  a  lump  of  red  coral  for  menstrua- 
tion (It.),  concretions  and  inclusions  in  stone  for  pregnancy 
(It.),  which  might  be  equally  well  explained  on  any  of  the 
five  theories. 

(B)  The  Faith  theory,  or  the  effect  of  thought-directing, 
will  explain  cases  such  as  the  fish  worn  for  fecundity  (It.), 
or  the  bat's  head  worn  to  prevent  sleep  (PLINY,  xxx,  48) ; 
but  these  may  equally  be  explained  by  (E),  as  cases  of  the 
effect  of  similars.  The  use  of  galactitis,  a  soft  white  stone 
worked  up  into  a  milky  diffusion  in  water,  and  taken 
internally  for  lactation  (PLINY,  xxxvii,  59),  might  be 
explained  by  (D)  or  (E).  Other  cases  which  might  equally 
be  explained  by  (C),  (D)  or  (E)  are  the  wearing  of  a  red 
stone  of  any  kind  against  bleeding  ;  a  milk-white  stone  for 
lactation;  the  Dentalium  shell  for  teething;  the  nephrite 
stone  for  the  kidneys ;  the  operculum  of  a  shell  ("  eye  of 
S.  Lucia  ")  for  the  eyes ;  an  ivory  ball  like  a  breast,  for 
lactation ;  a  white  and  cold  ivory  tablet  for  fever  (all  in 
Italy) ;  the  bones  of  animals'  heads  for  headache  (PLINY, 
xxix,  36)  ;  the  wearing  of  the  yellow  Lyncurion  stone  for 
jaundice  (PLINY,  xxxvii,  13),  or  a  tooth  for  toothache  (PLINY, 
xxviii,  27). 

There  is  another  kind  of  thought-directing,  which  must 
not  be  confounded  with  the  above.  Not  only  may  the 
patient's  thoughts  be  usefully  directed,  but  also  the 
dangerous  thoughts  of  another  person  may  be  diverted  away 
from  the  person  who  dreads  them,  by  his  wearing  some 
object  to  distract  the  attention.  In  prehistoric  times  this 
was  done  in  Egypt  by  a  bright  white  piece  of  shell  hung  on 
the  forehead  ;  in  one  case  a  bright  piece  of  sheet  copper 
was  used.  In  modern  times  women  wear  in  Egypt  a  bright 
gilt  tubular  ornament  down  the  middle  of  the  forehead ;  and 
in  Darnaraland  a  chief's  daughter  wore  a  disc  of  shell,  hung 
so  that  she  could  swing  it  over  either  eye  (GALTON,  Travels 
in  South  Africa,  ed.  1890,  p.  63).  For  the  same  purpose 
are  the  principal  amulets  against  the  evil  eye  in  Italy.  A 
facetted  rock  crystal,  or  even  a  bottle  stopper,  serves  to  catch 
the  eye  and  thought  of  an  observer  and  divert  them  from 
the  wearer.  Similarly  the  attention  is  easily  diverted  to 
sexual  models,  both  kinds  of  which  are  reputed  to  be 
powerful  protectors.  The  unquestionable  truth  of  this 
thought-directing  away  from  the  patient  has  no  bearing 


THE     PRINCIPLES     OF    AMULETS 


upon  the  reality  of  the  beneficial  direction  of  the  patient's 
own  thoughts,  or  the  Faith  theory. 

(C)  The  Double  theory,  or  alter  ego,  according  to  which 
an  external  double  of  an  organ  is  so  bound  up  with  it  that 
benefits  to  one  are  conferred  on  both,  will  account  for  most 
of  the  cases  named.     But  where  the  wearer  is  unconscious 
of  the  amulet,  as  a  tooth  worn  for  teething  (Italy,  PLINY, 
xxviii,  78),  the  foregoing  theories,  (A),  (B),  could  not  hold 
good,  but  only  the  following,  (D),  (E). 

(D)  The  Vicarious  theory  supposes  that  a  model  worn 
will  receive  the  attacks  of  spirits  and  ward  them  off  the 
actual  person.     This — as  we  have  noticed — will  account  for 
most  of  the  preceding  cases.    There  are,  however,  some 
amulets  which  are  specially  to  be  thus  explained,  such  as 
the  placing  of  lead  amulets  on  swine  to  avert  suppuration 
and  vermin,  the  dull,  sluggish  metal  hindering  the  sluggish 
evils  (It.) ;  the  use  of  amber  which  has  motes  in  it,  or  a 
white  opacity,  for  the  benefit  of  the  eyes  (It.) ;  the  wearing 
of  a  tongue  of  a  hyaena  or  a  dog  in  the  shoe  to  prevent  dogs 
barking  (PLINY,  xxvii,  42 ;  xxix,  82) ;  the  use  of  a  chilly 
frog  against  the  chill  of  fever  (PLINY,  xxxii,  38) ;  the  well- 
known  heart  or  image  pricked  with  pins  or  stabbed  :  all  of 
these  may    be   looked   on   as   vicarious,   or   else   as  (E), 
similars. 

Somewhat  like  this  is  the  scape-goat  idea  of  a  victim  to 
carry  away  the  evil,  as  in  the  transfer  of  scorpion  poison  by 
speaking  in  an  ass's  ear  (PLINY,  xxviii,  42),  or  the  spitting 
on  a  frog  which  is  liberated  to  remove  a  cough  (PLINY,  xxxii, 
29). 

6.  All  of  the  examples  of  the  above  theories  of  amulets 
we  have  seen  to  be  equally  compatible  with 

(E)  The  doctrine  of  Similars,  according  to  which  objects 
which  are  closely  alike  have  such  a  connection  that  power 
over   one,    or   possession   of   one,   enables   the   wearer   to 
influence  the  other  or  to  command  like  qualities.     Here  we 
at  once  find  many  cases  which  are  explained  by  this  belief, 
but  which  are  not  touched  by  any  of  the  four  preceding 
explanations   or   theories.      One   of   the   most    instructive 
accounts  of  amulets  is  that  by  EASMUSSEN,  describing  the 
Eskimo  in  The  People  of  the  Polar  North.     The  extreme 
simplicity  and  directness  of  the  ideas,  and  the  absence  of 
any  magical  or  theistic  complication  renders  this  a  classical 
example  of  the  doctrine  of  Similars.     The  amulet  confers 
qualities  or  protects  from  danger  ;  and — excepting  the  first 
case  which  might  be  explained  on  the  Confidence  theory  (A) 
— these  examples  can  only  be  reasonably  accounted  for  as 
Similars.      The  amulets  are :    the  skin  from  the  roof  of 
the  mouth  of  a  BEAR,  worn  in  a  child's  cap  in  order  to  be 
strong  in  danger ;  the  head  or  feet  of  a  HAWK,  sewn  in  a 
boy's  clothes  in  order  that  he  may  become  a  great  hunter  ; 
a  black  GUILLEMOT'S  foot,  worn  to  become  great  whalers  ;   a 
RAVEN'S  foot,  worn  to  be  satisfied  with  little ;  a  head  of  a  FOX, 
worn  to  be  cunning  and  guarded ;  the  head  of  a  KITTIWAKE 
(which  lays  small  epgs)  put  in  a  girl's  clothes  that  she  may 
give  birth  to  small  children ;    a  piece  of  a  HEARTHSTONE, 


which  is  durable  and  stronger  than  fire,  worn  to  give  long 
life  and  strength ;  a  PEBBLE,  which  drops  swiftly  from  a  high 
rock,  put  on  the  necks  of  puppies  that  they  may  be  fleet  and 
strong  ;  the  skin  of  a  LITTLE  AUK  caught  fighting  put  on  a 
dog  that  he  may  be  a.  fighter, 

In  the  Ileinwkringla  (MAONUSSON  and  MORBIS,  i,  55 — 6), 
there  is  one  of  the  nearest  instances  to  an  amulet  in  Norse 
writing  :  "  Swipdag  let  take  the  heart  out  of  a  wolf,  and 
roast  it  on  a  spit,  and  gave  it  thereafter  to  Ingiald,  the 
king's  son,  to  eat ;  and  thenceforth  became  he  the  grimmest 
of  all  men,  and  the  evillest  hearted."  This  is  essentially  an 
instance  of  Similars. 

In  Italy  the  very  common  use  of  flint  arrowheads  or  fossil 
teeth  called  "  thunderstones  "  to  protect  from  lightning,  or 
serpentine  to  protect  from  serpents  (also  PLINY,  xxxvi,  11), 
can  only  be  explained  by  Similars.  The  same  idea  is  shown 
by  putting  a  dragon's  head  under  the  door-sill  for  good 
fortune  (PLINY,  xxix,  20),  i.e.,  trampling  on  evil  influences; 
also  by  the  frog,  transfixed  so  that  it  cannot  move  away,  to 
ensure  faithfulness  (PuNY,  xxxii,  18) ;  while  the  effect  of 
opposites  is  shown  by  the  hairs  of  a  she-mule  worn  for 
fertility  (PLINY,  xxx,  49).  A  complex  amulet  of  watchful 
animals  is  that  of  the  eyes  of  river  crabs,  wrapped  with  the 
ilesh  of  a  nightingale  in  a  deer's  skin,  to  give  watchfulness 
(PLINY,  xxxii,  38). 

From  these  various  examples  of  charms  and  amulets, 
which  are  compatible  with  the  different  theories  that  we 
have  considered,  it  appears  that  though  some  are  consistent 
with  each  of  the  theories,  yet  no  theory  will  explain  all  of 
them  excepting  Jhe  theory  of  Similars,  otherwise  called 
Sympathetic  Magic.  Other  theories  may  give  the  explana- 
tion of  some  cases ;  they  cannot  be  disproved  as  modes  of 
thought.  But  every  case  which  we  have  recounted  as 
critical  evidence  can  be  the  result  of  beliefs  in  Similars ; 
and  until  some  different  class  of  beliefs  can  be  proved  to 
have  existed,  it  is  only  legitimate  to  accept  that  belief  as 
the  underlying  cause  of  all  the  uses  of  amulets  which  are 
generally  recognised. 

7.  There  is  also  another  class  of  amulets,  which  the 
wearer  regards  as  entirely  individual,  and  which  result  from 
a  casual  observation  of  what  happens  to  the  person  when 
certain  objects  are  present.  This  is  a  lower  form  of  belief 
than  that  in  the  general  applicability  of  an  amulet ;  it  pre- 
supposes no  law,  but  a  chance  connection  which  is  wholly 
unaccountable.  Yet — strange  to  say  —  this  least  intel- 
lectual form  of  belief  is  that  which  appears  commonest 
at  present  in  "  mascots,"  carried  by  various  classes  of 
illogical  persons.  When  we  try  to  see  some  underlying 
cause  for  such  a  savage  survival  we  may  observe  that  the 
occupations  of  the  wearers  are  those  which  seem  most  to 
depend  on  chance,  and  least  on  continuous  will.  Actors, 
gamesters  and  aviators,  as  well  as  motor  racers,  cling  to 
amulets,  and  all  are  dependent  upon  conditions  which  are 
not  obviously  in  their  own  control.  We  may  smile  at  the 
use  of  basilisk  blood  to  gain  success  in  petitions  (PLINY, 

B2 


THE     PRINCIPLES     OF    AMULETS 


xxix,  19,)  ;  but  it  was  more  reasonable  to  believe  in  some 
general  law  on  the  matter  than  to  believe  in  the  effect  of  a 
man  smoking  a  cigar  opposite  a  theatre  door  to  gain  a 
profitable  audience  for  the  play.  We  may  not  believe  in 
a  star-fish  smeared  with  foxes'  blood,  and  nailed  with  copper 
nails  over  a  door  to  repel  evil  (PLINY,  xxxii,  16) ;  but  we  see 
an  ex-prime  minister  wearing  a  swastika  for  luck,  and 
talking  heartily  about  it  to  uneducated  boys.  While  no  one 
now  wears  the  right  shoulder  of  a  chamaeleon  to  ensure 
victory  (PLINY,  xxviii,  29),  we  yet  read  of  aviators  wearing 
particular  trinkets  for  their  safety.  On  the  whole  the 
power  of  irrational  belief  seems  to  have  gained,  rather  than 
lost  its  hold  in  modern  times. 

8.  The  primitive  mode  of  thought  seems  unchanged  by 
all  that  has  past.  The  untamed  mind  of  man  appears  to 
be  continually  feeling  vaguely  for  different  avenues  to 
success  ;  reason  is  so  little  developed  that  benefit  seems 
only  to  be  reached  by  trying  blindly  in  all  directions.  I 
have  often  been  surprised  at  the  helpless  way  in  which 
Egyptians  will  do  things  on  the  chance  of  success.  They 
will  follow  some  vague  rumour— perhaps  at  third-hand — of 
a  benefit  or  a  gain,  merely  to  see  if  any  good  result  comes. 
It  seems  like  the  white  ants  making  tunnels  in  all 
directions,  on  the  chance  of  hitting  something  to  eat, 
without  any  guide  from  the  senses.  This  incessant 
vague  searching,  whenever  it  succeeds,  produces  a  belief 
that  any  casual  connection  with  other  incidents  is  a  real 
cause  of  success ;  the  least  intelligent  think  that  their 
success  is  only  individual  to  them,  and  cling  to  any 
tangible  link  as  a  "mascot"  ;  the  more  intelligent  seek 
for  some  law,  and  frame  one  of  the  innumerable  gene- 
ralities about  wolves'  tongues,  dragons'  tails,  or  serpents' 
eggs,  which  choke  the  pages  of  Pliny  and  many  other  old 
writers. 

This  subject  of  individual  amulets,  or  "  mascots,"  does 
not  belong  to  our  present  work ;  the  distinction  should 
however  be  observed  between  this  and  the  general  amulet, 
and  we  should  regard  the  difference  of  the  much  lower  grade 
of  superstition  from  which  it  originates.  The  individual 
amulet  regards  only  chance  connection  without  any  law  or 
reason  ;  the  general  amulet  is  in  the  first  groping  stage  of 
the  acquisition  of  general  laws,  which  eventually  lead  to  the 
orderly  view  of  organic  nature.  Both  are  absurd  to  anyone 
with  the  least  real  knowledge ;  yet  the  one  is  hopelessly 


animistic,  while   the  other  shows  the  sense  of  law,  even 
if  entirely  misapplied. 

9.  When  we  read  the  pages  of  Pliny  regarding  ancient 
Italy,  or  Bellucci    about  modern  Italy,  we  perceive  how 
largely  organic  objects  are  adopted  as  amulets.      These,  in 
the   nature  of  things,  have  been  but  rarely  preserved  for 
long ;  and   even  when   found  their  meaning  is  not  easily 
recognised.    A  mere  twig  of  a  tree,  or  a  scrap  of  fur  might 
be  casually  left  in  a  grave  without  a  meaning ;  while  a 
carefully    wrought   stone    or    pottery    object    is     clearly 
intentional.     Hence  we  find  what  is  in  any  case  but  a  small 
part  of  the  whole  mass  of  amulets  that  have  been  in  use. 
The  nature  of   the    beliefs   in   such   things   is   doubtless 
in  continual  flux  like  all  matters  which  have  not  been  fixed 
by  reduction  to  a  written   form.    We   can  hardly  realise 
how  the  thoughts  of  early  man  must  have  been  incessantly 
shifting  and  changing  their  form,  like  an  amoeba.     We  are 
so  accustomed  to  reduce  ideas  to  a  written  definition,  which 
perpetuates  them  unaltered  until  they  are  entirely  out  of 
date,  and  passed  by  in  further  growth,  that  we  cannot  feel 
the  sense  of  all  ideas  fluctuating  with  the  individual.     A 
popular  belief,  such  as  that  in  amulets  and  charms  is  one 
of  the  last  things  to  be  fixed  by  writing,  and  hence  it  has 
been  exposed  longer  to  the  waves  of  changing  thoughts. 
Even  Roman  law  was  not  crystallized  into  writing  till  well 
into  the  historic  age ;  and  at  the  other  end  of  the  scale  of 
certainties  such  vague  beliefs  as  those  in  amulets  must 
have  been  continually  shifting. 

10.  In  Italy  at  present  we  see  the  result  of  a  long  course  of 
decay  of  beliefs.    Of  all  the  purposes  of  amulets,  very  nearly 
half  are  against  the  evil  eye,  and  these  are  most  incongruous 
in  their  nature — shells,  claws,  horn,  teeth,  toads,  crescents, 
crystal,     agate,    madrepore  —  everything    seems     equally 
applicable.     This  great  variety  must  have  originated  in  very 
different  ideas  of  connection  ;  the  purposes  must  have  been 
very  diverse  originally.      But  all  have  been  blended  into 
one  general  idea  of  averting  the  ill  will  of  another  person  ; 
and  this  has  passed  further  into  the  stage  of  averting  mere 
ill-luck  brought  by  another  person  without  any  intention. 
Such  a  jumble  of  different  beliefs  into  one  generality  shows 
that  there  has    been  a   long   time    for   the   details  to   be 
forgotten,  and  for  one  vague  idea  to  be  substituted  for  the 
specific  observations  of  chances,  out  of  which  a  multitude 
of  beliefs  had  arisen. 


CHAPTER  II 
EGYPTIAN    AMULETS 


11.  The  subject  of  Egyptian  amulets  is  one  that  appeals 
both  to  the  reader  of  folk  lore,  as  well  as  to  the  Egyptologist, 
and  hence  it  is  needful  here  to  deal  with  some  elementary 
details  which  may  not  be  familiar  to  one  side  or  to  the  other. 


The  whole  subject  of  amulets  is  an  immense  one,  and 
there  is  no  general  work  of  reference  giving  the  ideas  of 
various  lands.  Nor  is  this  intended  to  deal  with  other 
than  Egyptian  amulets,  though  many  collateral  examples 


EGYPTIAN     AMULETS 


are  here  introduced  in  order  to  explain  them,  and  to 
illustrate  their  use.  Studying  thus  with  a  past  civilisation 
we  are  almost  cut  off  from  the  largest  class  of  amulets,  those 
of  animal  and  vegetable  nature,  so  that  this  point  of  view 
here  is  but  a  partial  one.  On  the  other  hand  the  Egyptian 
was  so  industrious  in  imitation,  and  believed  so  completely 
in  the  virtue  of  models,  that  he  carried  out  his  ideas  in 
imperishable  material  more  widely  than  any  other  people. 
The  great  variety  of  over  two  hundred  and  seventy  different 
amulets  used  in  Egypt,  and  the  amount  of  light  thrown  on 
them  by  statements  of  their  properties,  or  descriptive  names, 
renders  Egypt  one  of  the  most  favourable  lands  for  a 
general  study  of  the  subject. 

12.  In  handling  a  subject  which  ramifies  so  widely,  we 
must    begin   by   some   definitions  and   limitations.      The 
principle    of    amuletic    virtue    extends    to    most    of    the 
sepulchral  remains  of   the   Egyptians.     The  model  offer- 
ings, pictorial  scenes  of  life,  and  ushabti  figures  of  slave 
workers,   provided    in    the    tomb,   are  all  based   on    the 
principle  of  Similars  ;  such  necessarily  differ  from  amulets 
worn  by  the  living  in  their  being  more  extensive,  and  not 
suspended  from  the  person.     As  for  the  dead,  so  also  for 
the  living,  there  are  some  classes  of   amulets   numerous 
enough  to  form  whole  subjects  in  themselves,  apart  from  their 
amuletic  aspect ;  such  are  the  scarabs  with  royal  names, 
with  other  personal  names,  with  charms,  and  with  devices 
of  unknown  purport ;  also  the  plaques  with  similar  devices, 
and  the  foreign  class  of  button  seals.    Each  of  these  classes 
is  so  important  and  numerous  that  we  cannot  include  them  in 
a  detailed  account  with  other  amulets.    Nor  is  it  possible  to 
divide  between  amulets  for  the  living  and  for  the  dead,  though 
many  kinds  belong  exclusively  to  one  or  other  category. 

In  general  any  object  with  a  means  of  suspension  on  the 
person,  and  not  of  immediate  use  or  ornament,  must  be 
classed  as  an  amulet.  The  figures  of  the  gods  with  loops  for 
suspension  we  include  as  amulets,  while  those  which  were 
stood  on  a  base  must  be  treated  along  with  all  other  images 
of  divinities.  Unfortunately  the  detail  of  the  suspending  ring 
or  hole  is  not  noted  in  catalogues  ;  where  following  descrip- 
tions, I  have  therefore  accepted  all  figures  under  two  inches 
high  ('05  m.)  as  amulets,  and  left  larger  figures  apart.  The 
great  development  of  amulets  for  the  dead  is  peculiar  to 
Egypt ;  elsewhere  they  are  found,  but  not  with  such  variety 
and  detail.  In  China  the  substitutes  of  paper  or  pottery  figures 
of  slaves,  and  paper  dollars,  is  of  the  same  purpose ;  but  the 
great  extent  of  symbolic  amulets  in  Egypt  is  unparalleled. 

13.  The  stages  of  the  growth  of  the  amulet  system  in 
Egyptian  burials  can  be  historically  traced  more  completely 
than  elsewhere.     (1)  In  the  earliest  graves,  such  as  the  pre- 
historic, whole  objects  were  buried.     (2)  In  the  later  pre- 
historic and  early  historic  time,  the  objects  were  deliberately 
broken  or  "  killed."     (8)  In  the  early  dynasties  models  of 
objects  appaar ;  besides  the  jars  of  grain  there  are  small 
model  granaries ;  besides  the  jars  of  beer  and  joints  of  meat 

here  are  models  of  food ;  and,  in  the  Xth — Xlth  dynasties, 


besides  the  tomb  there  is  the  model  of  a  dwelling  house  and 
furniture.  (4)  Beginning  in  the  early  pyramid  age  there 
are  the  sculptured  objects  in  relief,  where  the  master  is 
portrayed  as  "beholding  "  all  his  farm  and  servants  in  full 
activity,  and  hunting  in  the  desert  or  on  the  river.  (5)  As 
the  model  was  succeeded  by  the  relief,  so  that  was  succeeded 
in  turn  by  the  painting,  beginning  in  the  Vlth  dynasty, 
and  fully  developed  in  the  Xllih.  (6)  Symbols  were  then 
substituted  for  the  objects  such  as  the  model  altar,  or  vase, 
or  food,  placed  as  an  amulet  with  the  body.  (7)  Besides 
amuletic  substitutions  for  real  objects,  amulets  were 
adapted  to  confer  powers,  such  as  the  crowns,  or  sceptres,  or 
verbal  charms  stating  that  the  deceased  was  a  god  and  must 
be  obeyed  as  such.  The  wish  to  have  actual  objects  buried 
still  lasts  in  Egypt  where  food  and  even  a  bed  may  be 
placed  with  the  dead.  In  England  the  same  feeling  is  by 
no  means  extinct,  as  in  1912  a  boot  maker  ordered  that 
there  should  be  buried  with  him  a  last,  hammer,  nails, 
unfinished  boots  and  a  piece  of  leather. 

It  appears  that  we  must  define  amulets  broadly  as  objects 
worn  by  the  living,  without  any  physical  use  but  for  magical 
benefits,  or  placed  with  the  dead,  or  sat  up  in  the  house  for 
its  magical  protection,  apart  from  deities  for  household 
worship. 

14.  The  material  used  for  the  present  study  is  mainly 
the  collection  which  I  have  made  during  the  last  thirty 
years  in  Egypt,  now  taken  over  by  University  College.  At 
first  a  collection  purchased  by  a  visitor  or  worker  in 
Egypt  is  naturally  miscellaneous  and  casual ;  gradually 
certain  lines  claim  more  interest,  and  besides  the  main 
pursuit  of  scarabs,  tools,  technical  work,  weights,  and 
pottery,  the  curious  variety  of  out-of-the-way  amulets  has 
proved  attractive.  Further  information  was  also  obtained 
from  the  regular  excavations  as  to  the  positions  in  which 
amulets  are  found  upon  the  body,  and  the  detailed  accounts  of 
such  here  recorded  are  almost  the  only  observations  3ret  pub- 
lished on  this  matter.  The  dates  of  various  amulets  were 
also  obtained  from  excavations,  and  in  this — as  in  other 
subjects — the  miscellaneous  material  purchased  is  immensely 
enhanced  in  its  meaning  and  interest  by  the  precise  infor- 
mation gathered  in  scientific  work.  While  the  commoner 
amulets  are  illustrated  by  splendid  examples  in  the  national 
collections,  there  is  no  series  nearly  as  complete  as  the 
present  one  for  the  rarer  and  more  obscure  amulets,  only 
ten  being  absent. 

Besides  this  collection  many  early  discoveries  and  pur- 
chases of  mine  went  to  Miss  Edwards  for  her  collection, 
bequeathed  to  University  College  ;  these,  along  with  other 
objects  from  my  excavations  that  have  been  presented  to 
the  college,  are  all  included  in  the  present  catalogue.  In 
order  to  preserve  a  record,  the  number  of  examples  in  the 
original  Edwards  collection  is  marked  E,  and  those  added 
by  the  Petrie  collection  and  discoveries  are  marked  P.  Of 
course,  nothing  resembling  finality  is  possible  in  this,  or  any 
other,  branch  of  archaeology ;  but  the  time  has  come  for 


EGYPTIAN     AMULETS 


taking  stock  of  the  subject,  classifying  the  various  details, 
and  making  a  platform  for  planning  further  investigations 
and  seeing  clearly  the  value  of  any  fresh  information. 

Other  collections  have  been  referred  to,  partly  from 
catalogues  published,  such  as  the  excellent  ones  of  Turin, 
St.  Petersburg,  and  Cairo.  The  difficulty  in  using  such  is 
the  defect  of  some  information ;  in  the  Turin  and 
St.  Petersburg  catalogues  the  details  of  form  are  often 
vague ;  in  the  Cairo  catalogue  the  drawings  are  ample,  but 
the  nature  of  the  material  is  very  imperfectly  stated.  Of 
the  British  Museum  there  is  no  detailed  catalogue,  and  the 
excessive  reflection  from  double  glass  often  makes  the 
material  indistinguishable.  It  is  hoped  that  the  photo- 
graphs here  given  of  nearly  all  examples,  and  the  definition 
of  the  material,  will  leave  but  few  uncertainties.  It  should 
be  noted  that  in  many  types  this  collection  has  been 
severely  weeded,  so  as  to  omit  duplicates  where  of  no 
additional  importance  ;  whereas  the  national  collections,  by 
their  conditions,  are  swelled  by  numerous  duplicates,  kept 
for  their  beauty  and  attractiveness,  or  obtained  as  part 
of  large  acquisitions.  The  scientific  value  of  a  collection 
depends  upon  the  scope  and  variety  of  it,  rather  than  on  the 
brilliance  of  particular  specimens. 

15.  In  the  treatment  of  this  catalogue,  the  figures  which 
may  have  diverse  meanings — such  as  the  vulture — are 
nevertheless  classed  together,  as  it  would  be  difficult,  or 
impossible,  to  determine  in  all  cases  which  was  the  intended 
meaning.  Such  figures  are  therefore  placed  under  the  first 
important  heading  to  which  any  of  them  may  refer,  with 
cross-references  from  other  headings.  It  is  needless  to  give 
minute  verbal  descriptions  or  dimensions,  when  the  photo- 
graphs are  before  the  reader,  and  are  of  the  actual  size, 
except  in  a  very  few  instances  which  are  specially  noted. 
The  first  principle  of  a  modern  catalogue  is  to  have  full  and 
clear  pictures  of  every  object,  and  then  to  build  upon  that 
such  description  as  is  needful  to  supplement  the  picture. 
Unhappily  all  existing  catalogues — including  that  of  Cairo 
—have  begun  at  the  wrong  end,  with  a  verbal  description 
supplemented  by  a  picture.  The  modern  conditions  of 
illustrations  developed  in  the  last  few  years  have  com- 
pletely reversed  the  old  idea,  and  there  is  no  excuse  now  for 
burdening  a  reader  with  a  description  of  what  can  be 
grasped  with  a  tenth  of  the  time  and  thought  in  a  picture. 

The  principle  of  the  arrangement  of  this  catalogue  is 
that  it  should  follow  the  real  life  of  the  subject — the  mean- 
ing attached  to  each  amulet — rather  than  any  external 
feature  of  form  or  material.  These  meanings  of  the  amulets 
are  given  by  various  sources ;  principally  by  (A)  the  chapters 
of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  which  refer  to  the  amulets  ;  (B) 
the  very  full  list  of  seventy-five  amulets,  with  their  explana- 
tory names,  in  a  papyrus  of  that  Book,  belonging  to  the 
Rev.  William  MacGregor,  which  is  here  transcribed  from 
the  photograph  published  by  Dr.  CAPAET  (Z.  A.  S.  xlv,  14) ; 
(C)  the  analysis  of  the  objects  represented  upon  coffins  in 
Cairo,  published  by  M.  LACAU  (Sarcophagea  anteneurs  au 


nouvel  Empire,  1904,  Cairo) ;  (D)  various  scattered  allusions 
and  mythological  references  and  figures  ;  and  (E)  references 
from  other  countries,  which  may  help  us  to  understand 
the  ideas  when  no  explanation  remains  in  Egypt. 

16.  The  amulets  named  in  the  MacGregor  papyrus  are 
each  stated  to  be  of  gold,  which  is  omitted  in  the  copy  here 
given.     There  is  also  a  list  of  amulets  of  Osiris  given  on  the 
upper  part  of  the  temple  of  Dendereh,  and  copied  here 
(pi.    xlviii)  from  the  publication  by   MABIETTB,  Dendereh, 
iv,  87.     They  are  there  classed  according  to  their  material, 
and   after  each  name  of  material  a  dividing  line    is  here 
inserted.     The  materials  named  are  Uher  or  Heru,  which, 
by  the  nature  of  the  amulets  and  coming  first,  is  probably 
gold,  perhaps  a  form  of  the  Greek  Khrusos.      An.  en.  deb, 
probably  "  stone  of  Edfu"  ;  the  house  sign  in  Mariette's  copy 
is  probably  the  square  block  of  stone.     Mefkat,  MefkatAmen, 
Meflcat  o/Kharu  (Syria) :  this  was  a  green  mineral  in  general, 
including  turquoise,  malachite,  and  probably  chrysocolla:  that 
from  Amen  was  probably   western,  from   Kharu,    Syrian. 
Neshen  is   green   felspar.       Kartef?    of   Rutennu   (Syria), 
unknown.      Sef.  s.  taken  ?  Sef  is  the  name  of  white  quartz 
(Kennard  tablet),  and  tahcn  is  amethyst ;  this  is  therefore 
amethystine  quartz.     Sliestcb,  a  late  form  of  Khesdeb,  lazuli. 
Kes.  ankh,  alabaster.    Qo  or  Qedu  is  unknown,  another  form 
is  Qy ;  being  used  for  the  plummet  and  square  which  are 
usually  of  haematite,  this  was  probably  the  material.    Seher, 
the    "charming"  stone,  is  unknown.      So  also  is  liehet. 
Khencm  is  usually  jasper,  as  it  is  the  material  of  the  girdle 
tie  amulet,   but   it  is  sard  on  the  Kennard  tablet.     The 
reference  numbers  of  the  amulets  in  this  volume  are  put 
below  each  column. 

17.  On  examining  the  two  hundred  and  seventy  different 
kinds  of  amulets  found  in  Egypt,  there  are  only  about  a 
dozen   which   remain   unclassed,  and  without  any  known 
meaning ;  these   are  dealt  with  last  of  all.      The  various 
ascertained  meanings  may  be  completely  put  in  order  under 
five  great  classes,  in  which  the  amulets  are  here  arranged. 
These  are  (I)  the  amulets  of  Similars,  which  are  for  influenc- 
ing similar  parts,  or  functions,  or  occurrences,  for  the  wearer  : 
(II)  the  amulets   of   Powers,   for   conferring   powers   and 
capacities,  especially  upon  the  dead  :  (III)  the  amulets  of 
Properly,   which   are   entirely   derived   from   the    funeral 
offerings,  and  are  thus  peculiar  to  Egypt :  (IV)  the  amulets 
for  Protection,  such  as  charms  and  curative  amulets :  (V)  the 
figures  of  Gods,  connected  with  the  worship  of  the  gods 
and  their  functions. 

As  international  names  are  desirable  in  dealing  with  any 
scientific  classification,  and  one  word  is  preferable  to  a 
description  when  handling  a  subject,  it  is  best  to  have  a 
proper  name  for  each  class,  independent  of  English.  The 
Similars  may  be  termed  Homopoeic  (from  o/*o?,  like,  or  same, 
and  iroifia,  I  do,  or  make)  ;  the  amulets  of  Powers  we  call 
Dynatic(hom  Swarog,  able,  powerful,  adequate) ;  the  Property 
amulets  Ktematic  (from  KT%ia,  goods,  possessions) ;  the  Pro- 
tective amulets,  Phylactic  (from  $uAa/mKos,  fitted  to  guard, 


6 


EGYPTIAN     AMULETS 


familiar  in  the  term  "  phylacteries  ") ;  and  the  amulets  of 
Gods,  Theophoric  (from  fcos,  god,  and  $op«o,  I  bear,  or  wear). 
Our  classes  then  are  called  here  amulets  of 

Similars,  or  Homopoeic. 

Powers,  or  Dynatic. 

Property,  or  Ktematic. 

Protection,  or  Phylactic. 

Gods,  or  Theophoric. 

Of  these  classes  the  Similars  are  undoubtedly  the  most 
primitive,  being  found  among  races  like  the  Eskimo  who 
have  no  other  amulets,  and  being  the  basis  of  the  Italian 
ideas  of  amulet.  The  Powers  and  Property  amulets  are 
entirely  Egyptian,  and  originate  with  the  models  of  the 
funeral  furniture,  arising,  therefore,  after  the  development 
of  the  funeral  system.  The  Protective  amulets  are  a  later 
class,  depending  on  quasi-medical  ideas,  or  verbal  incanta- 
tions or  prayers  written  down.  Lastly,  the  figures  of  Gods 
belong  to  the  age  of  a  developed  theology.  The  list  of  all 


these  amulets  of  each  class  is  here  given,  in  the  Contents  of 
this  volume.  For  purpose  of  reference  each  kind  of  amulet 
has  a  number  assigned  to  it,  the  same  in  the  text  and  in 
the  plates;  each  separate  specimen  shown  has  a  letter 
added  to  the  number  as  6k,  154c,  and  duplicates  which  are 
here  stated  without  illustration  have  a  second  number  as 
6k2,  or  15*c  3. 

The  transliteration  of  Egyptian  is  that  followed  in  the 
Student's  History,  except  that  the  arm,  din  is  rendered  by 
its  historical  equivalent  o.  For  the  reed,  a  is  continued,  as 
its  written  equivalent  is  aleph  whenever  rendered  in  Semitic 
names,  and  the  value  i  or  y  is  a  theoretical  early  stage, 
of  which  not  a  single  transliteration  is  known.  The  golden- 
headed  vulture  is  short  5.  For  very  familar  names  the 
usual  forms  are  retained,  as  Isis,  Horus,  Ra,  etc. 

In  the  record  of  specimens,  groups  are  numbered  which 
have  been  found  together ;  a  list  of  such  groups  is  placed 
at  the  end  of  the  volume. 


SYSTEM    OF    THE    CATALOGUE 


Name,  is  the  ancient  Egyptian  name,  with  reference 
when  not  in  dictionaries. 

Meaning,  is  the  Egyptian  meaning  if  known  ;  also  that  in 
other  lands  for  comparison. 

Period,  is  stated  in  dynasties,  I  to  XXX. 

Figures,  describes  the  figures  in  the  plates  from  amulets 
in  University  College.  The  number  of  the  class  of  amulet 
is  stated  :  the  following  letter  refers  to  the  specific  example  ; 
where  a  number  follows  the  letter  it  refers  to  duplicates  of 
the  lettered  examples,  not  usually  figured  in  the  plates. 

Material,  includes  the  total  number  of  examples  of  each 
material  in  this  collection  and  in  others  which  have  been 
published  or  noted.  One  new  term  is  used  for  indurated 
rnud  or  ash,  which  is  of  the  composition  of  slate,  but  with- 
out a  slatey  fracture.  As  no  usual  word  was  available,  it  is 
here  called  Durite  ;  it  has  been  usually  confounded  with  the 
fused  rock,  basalt. 

Collection,  states  the  number  of  examples  in  each  collec- 
tion, to  show  how  far  common  the  amulet  is.  Univ.  Coll. 
refers  to  the  collection  at  University  College,  London, 
catalogued  here ;  after  it  with  P.  is  stated  the  number 
collected  by  Petrie,  with  E.  the  number  by  Miss  Edwards, 
mainly  also  collected  by  Petrie. 

The  principal  books  referred  to  are : — 

BELL.      BBLLUCCI,   Dr.    Giuseppe,    Catalogo    .  .  .   della 


Collezione  inviata  all'  esposizione  .  .  .  di  Torino.  1898. 
104  pp. 

Am.  BELLUCCI.  Gli  Amuleti.  Perugia,  1908.  64  pp., 
86  fig. 

Fet.  BELLUCCI.  II  Feticismo  primitive  in  Italia.  Peru- 
gia, 1907.  158  pp.,  74  fig. 

LANZ.  LANZONE,  E.  V.  Dizionario  di  Mitologia  Egizia. 
1312  pp.,  408  pi. 

LACAU.  LACAU,  Sarcopliages  anterieurs  au  nouvel  Empire. 
1904. 

Alnwick.  BIRCH,  S.,  Catalogue  of  Egyptian  Antiquities  at 
Alnwick.  1880. 

Cairo.  KEISNER,  G.,  Catalogue  of  Amulets.  Cairo 
Museum.  1908. 

Edinburgh.  MURRAY,  M.  A.,  Catalogue  of  Egyptian 
Antiquities  in  National  Museum.  1900. 

Price.  PRICE,  HILTON,  Catalogue  of  Egyptian  Antiquities. 
1897. 

St.  Petersburg.  GOLENISCHEFF,  W.  Erinitagc  Imperial. 
Inventaire  de  la  Collection  Egyptiennc.  1891.  386  pp. 

Turin.  LANZONE,  R.  V.  Regio  Musco  di  Torino.  Anti- 
chita  Egizie.  1882.  484  pp. 

The  Athens  collection  is  from  my  notes.  The  Murch 
collection  (now  in  New  York)  is  from  the  notes  of  Mr.  A.  C. 
Mace. 


CHAPTEE    III 


AMULETS  OF  SIMILARS 

HOMOPOEIC  AMULETS,  1—26. 


THIS  class  of  amulets  is  the  most  primitive  in  its  nature, 
but  in  Egypt  it  was  mainly  adapted  to  the  service  of  the 
dead.  In  order  that  the  various  functions  of  life  should  be 
continued,  models  of  the  different  parts  of  the  body  were 
placed  with  the  mummy.  Thus  the  amulets  would  ensure 
the  seeing,  hearing,  taste,  force  to  act,  use  of  the  hands 
and  the  feet,  and  other  functions.  Other  similars  would 
ensure  growth  and  flourishing,  watchfulness,  and  protection 
from  wild  beasts.  In  this  way  the  safety,  well-being,  and 
activity  of  the  dead  in  a  future  life  were  secured  by  the 
appropriate  similar  placed  with  the  body.  These  amulets 
are  classed  here  as  parts  of  the  body,  from  the  head  down- 
ward (1 — 17),  and  then  the  animal  figures  which  would 
ensure  the  welfare  of  the  body  (18—26). 

1.    HEAD  BEARDED. 

Name.  Tep  is  the  name  of  the  bearded  head  from  the 
earliest  times.  In  the  hieroglyph  the  beard  is  turned  up 
at  the  end,  like  the  beard  of  the  men  of  Punt,  and  the  hair 
is  worn  long ;  this  seems  to  be  an  earlier  type  than  that  of 
the  historic  Egyptian. 

Meaning.  The  chief  or  head-man,  but  possibly  referring, 
as  an  amulet,  to  the  power  of  the  senses. 

Varieties.  A,  single  face.  B,  face  front  and  back.  C, 
head  and  shoulders. 

Period.    XXV— Ptolemaic  (?). 

Figures.  la,  blue-green  glaze,  bluer  in  hollows,  flat 
back,  loop  broken  from  top  ;  lb,  yellow  green  glaze,  face 
front  and  back,  notch  between  two  beards ;  Ic,  amber  head 
(of  child  ? )  and  shoulders.  See  as  lb  from  Saft,  in 
Hyksos  and  Israelite  Cities,  xxxvii  a. 

Materials.    Green  glaze  2,  Ic  Amber. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  3. 

2.    FACE. 

Name.  Her  means  the  face,  always  figured  front  view, 
with  a  short,  wide  beard,  different  from  that  of  Tep.  See 
the  foreign  figure  in  Hierakonpolis,  pi.  i. 

Meaning.  While  as  a  hieroglyph  it  means  "facing"  or 
"  over-against,"  it  is  probably  used  as  an  amulet  of  the 
power  of  the  senses. 


Varieties  and  Period.  In  the  Old  Kingdom  it  is  usually 
roughly  cut  in  carnelian  or  sard.  In  Roman  times  it  is 
made  in  black  steatite  without  a  neck. 

Figure*.  2a,  carnelian,  group  1 ;  2b,  carnelian,  group  2  ; 
2b  2,  green  felspar,  group  9  ;  2c,  carnelian,  group  3  ;  2d,  e, 
bone,  group  5;  2f,  blue  glaze,  group  12;  2f  2,  carnelinn, 
group  7  (2a  to  f  about  Vlth  dynasty);  2g,  blue  glaze, 
black  lines,  XVIIIth  dynasty  ;  2h,  onyx  rudely  cut  as  a  face, 
Roman  ('?);  2j,  black  steatite,  Roman  ;  2k,  1,  pi.  xliv,  black 
steatite,  Roman. 

Materials.  Carnelian  10,  Black  steatite  3,  Blue  glaze  2, 
Bone  2,  Green  felspar  1,  Onyx  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  23,  Murch  6,  British 
Museum  3. 

3.    UZAT  EVE. 

Name.  The  tuat  eye  is  that  of  Horns,  the  markings 
below  it  being  derived  from  the  feather  pattern  on  a  hawk's 
cheeks. 

Meaning.  As  the  eye  of  Horns  it  will  be  dealt  with 
under  138  to  142.  Here  it  is  to  be  included  as  being 
placed  upon  the  left  side  of  the  coffin,  opposite  to  the  head, 
in  order  that  the  deceased  might  have  the  power  of  seeing 
out.  The  deceased  being  identified  with  Horus,  he  is  able 
to  see  by  means  of  the  eye  of  the  god. 

Varieties.  Sometimes  inlaid  with  obsidian,  white  lime- 
stone, lazuli,  blue  glass,  or  copper,  in  the  wood  of  the  coffin. 
Otherwise  painted  on  the  coffin. 

Period.  Inlaid  in  XHth  dynasty,  from  Assyut  28,118 
(Cairo),  from  Dahshur  28,100  (Cairo);  painted  in  IVth, 
Tarkhan ;  and  Xllth,  Rifeh  (Manchester)  (Gizeh  and 
Rifeh,  pi.  x  a) ;  and  many  in  Cairo. 

4.    EYE. 

Name.     Ari. 

Meaning.     The  power  of  sight. 

Varieties.     Single,  or  three  together. 

Period.     XXIII  (?),  Roman. 

Figures.  4a,  green  glaze ;  4a 2,  gold  foil  found  at  Ha wara, 
Roman ;  4b,  blue-green  glaze ;  4b  2,  same ;  4b  3,  same,  in  a 
square. 

Materials.     Green  glaze  4,  Gold  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3,  E.  1. 


A. 


AMULETS     OF     SIMILARS 


5.    EAR. 

Name.  Mes-zer,  "  Producing  the  distant,"  a  functional 
name. 

Meaning.  The  power  of  hearing;  when  a  mummy 
amulet,  for  conferring  hearing ;  when  on  a  prayer  tablet, 
for  gaining  the  ear  of  the  god. 

Varieties.     A,  simple  ear.     B,  ear  incised  on  a  tablet. 

Period.    XVIII. 

Figures.  5a,  b,  blue  glaze,  flat  back,  pierced  with  hole 
for  suspension  ;  Sa  2,  full  blue  glaze ;  5c,  green  glaze  on 
schist.  For  tablets  see  Memphis  I. 

Materials.     Blue  glaze,  4. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3,  E.  1. 

6.    TONGUE. 

Name.     Nes. 

Meaning.     Power  of  speech. 

Period.      Roman. 

Figures.     See  Labyrinth,  xxxvi,  p.  36. 

Material.     Gold. 

Position.     In  mouth. 

Collection.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  Manchester  2,  Oxford 
Anthrop.,  2,  1  each  in  Brussels,  Munich,  Boston,  Chicago, 
Glasgow,  Leicester,  Aberdeen,  Bolton. 

7.    HEART. 

Names.  The  physical  heart  is  named  db,  and  also  hati— 
the  chief  part — as  referring  to  the  will ;  but  the  amulet  of 
the  heart  is  named  opert  on  the  coffins,  and  in  the  title  of 
the  chapter  (LA.CAU,  p.  125).  The  chapters  relating  to  the 
heart  in  the  Book  of  the  Dead  are  the  26th,  to  be  engraved 
on  lazuli,  "  Whereby  the  heart  is  given  to  a  person  in  the 
underworld  " ;  the  27th,  to  be  engraved  on  green  felspar, 
"  Whereby  the  heart  of  a  person  is  not  taken  from  him  in 
the  underworld  "  ;  the  28th  and  29th  with  the  same  title  ; 
the  29th  B,  "  Another  chapter  of  the  heart  upon  carnelian. 
I  am  the  Heron,  the  soul  of  Ea,  who  conducts  the  glorious 
ones  to  the  Duat.  It  is  granted  to  their  has  to  come  forth 
upon  the  earth,  to  do  whatsoever  their  ha  willeth.  It  is 
granted  to  the  ba  of  the  Osiris  N  to  come  forth  upon  the 
earth  to  do  whatsoever  his  ka  willeth."  This  chapter  is 
referred  to  by  the  figure  of  the  heron  or  akhetbird upon  the 
backs  of  some  hearts  and  heart  scarabs.  The  30th  chapter 
is  that  inscribed  on  the  heart  scarabs,  and  will  be  given 

under  90,  the  heart  scarab. 

Meaning.     The  power  of  living  and  will.     In  Italy  a  heart 

of  bone  is  worn  against  the  evil  eye  and  heart  disease 

(BELL.,  xii,  10  ;  xiii,  11,  18). 

Varieties.     A,  plain  without  side  projections.     B,  with 

side  projections  of  arteries.     C,  with  marks  on  the  front, 

as  figs.   7m,  o.     D,  with  the  akhet  bird,  representing  the 

spirit  or  illumination  which  resides  in  the  heart,  as  fig.  7n. 

E,  with  the  sun's  disc  over  it,  as  7g. 


Period.  In  Vlth,  carnelian,  but  rare ;  in  XVIIIth,  of 
carnelian,  gold  or  glass  ;  very  common  in  various  materials 
in  XXVIth.  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.      Type  A,  7a,  7b,  7bb  (pi.  xlv),  carnelian  ;  7a2, 
calcite ;  7a  3,   green   felspar ;    7c,  clear   green   glass  with 
yellow  and  white  stripes,  XVIII ;    7cc,  gold  (pi.  xliii) ;    7d, 
violet  glaze,  with  wreath  and  lotus  pendant  upon  it,  possibly 
a  vase  model,  XVIII ;    7e,  red  and  white  jasper ;  7f,  red  and 
white  breccia ;  7f  2,  red  and  white  breccia  burnt  brown  ;  7g, 
see  type  E  ;    7g  2,  blue  paste ;   7h,  light  blue  glass  ;  7h  2, 
blue  glass,  Zuweleyn ;  7h  3,  grey  serpentine ;  7h  4,  red  glass ; 
7j,  lazuli ;  7j  2,  green  volcanic  ash ;  7j  3,  serpentine  ;  7j  4, 
basalt  Zuweleyn  ;  7j  5,  brown  steatite  ;  7j  6,  black  steatite  ; 
7j  7,  green  glaze  ;  7j  8,  bronze  ;  7j  9,  10,  white  limestone 
(8,  9,  10,  Nebesheh) ;    7k,  dark  brown  jasper  ;    7k  2,  black 
and  green  serpentine,  7k  3,  sard ;  7k  4,  blue-green  glaze ; 
71,  blue  glaze,  trace  of  wreath  round  shoulder,  XVIII ;  711 
(pi.  xliv),  green  glaze,  Illahun,  XXII ;  7m,  violet  glaze,  with 
bright  blue  inlay  of  crescent  and  heart  sign  ;  7p,  rough  blue 
glaze,  Ptolemaic,  Dendereh,  group  21.     Type  C,  7o,  light 
green  glaze,  same  marks  on  both  side ;    7o  2,  dark  blue 
glaze,  same  marks.     Type  D,  7n,  blue  glaze,  Ptolemaic, 
Dendereh,  group  26 ;   7n  2,  blue  glass,  burnt.     This  type 
appears  also  in  the  heart  scarabs,  where  the  akhet  bird  is 
figured  on  the  back.     Type  E,  7g,  calcite. 

Materials.  Carnelian  and  sard  26,  Basalt  19,  Blue  glaze 
16,  Green  glaze  15,  Haematite  15,  Variegated  glass  9,  Lazuli 
8,  Porphyry  8,  Limestone  8,  Green  jasper  8,  Steatite  6, 
Serpentine  6,  Gold  5,  Quartz  4,  Beryl  4,  Bed  limestone  4, 
Red  jasper  4,  Obsidian  3,  Prase  3,  Agate  3,  Blue  glass  8, 
Amethyst  2,  Red  glass  2,  Red  and  white  breccia  2,  1  each  of 
Brown  jasper,  Green  felspar,  Green  volcanic  ash,  Pink 
granite,  Granite,  Calcite,  Alabaster,  Black  glass,  Bronze, 
Gilt  wood. 

Positions.  6  on  neck ;  2  on  left  breast ;  15  from  top 
down  to  low  on  chest. 

Collections.  Cairo  51,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  27,  E.  14,  St. 
Petersburg  33,  Turin  21,  Athens  17,  Alnwick  13,  Price  9, 
Edinburgh  7,  Murch  7. 


8.    BREAST. 

Names.     Menz. 

Meaning.  Power  of  lactation.  An  ivory  ball  is  worn  in 
Italy  for  the  increase  of  milk  (BELL.,  xii,  11). 

Varieties.     Flat  to  rounded. 

Period.     All  Ptolemaic  and  Roman. 

Figures.  8a,  wax  gilt,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  20 ; 
8b,  blue  glaze  with  black  nipple,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic, 
group  21. 

Materials.  Blue-green  glaze  1,  Gold  foil  1,  Wax  gilt  1, 
Wood  gilt  1. 

Position.     On  breast. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  8, 


10 


AMULETS     OF     SIMILAHS 


9.    ARM. 

Names.     Bent  Qeb ;  forearm  Remen. 
Meaning.     Power  of  action. 
Varieties.     A,  benfc.     B,  straight. 
Period.    A  VI. 

Figures.  Greenish-blue  glaze.  Type  B,  green  glaze, 
Turin. 

Materials.     Green  glaze  2. 
Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  Turin  1. 

10.    TWO  ARMS. 

Name.  Ka,  from  1st  dynasty  onwards  ;  implying  the 
activities  of  the  will. 

Meaning.     The  power  of  will  and  intention. 

Period.     XVIII. 

Figure.  lOa,  blue  glaze,  flat  back;  10a2,  green  glaze, 
Riqqeh,  257. 

Material.     Blue  or  green  glaze. 

Collections.     Cairo  2,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  Brit.  Mus.  1. 

11.    HAND  OPEN. 

Name.     Det. 

Meaning.     Power  of  action. 

Varieties.     Right  and  Left. 

Period.     VI. 

Figures.  Ha,  bone,  group  6  ;  lib,  c,  d,  caruelinn  ;  He, 
f,  green  glaze  ;  llg,  green  glaze,  Zaraby.  See  Deshasht-h, 
xxvi,  4,  10,  13  ;  2  of  carnelian  ;  1  grey  agate. 

Materials.  Carnelian  29,  Green  glaze  3,  Bone  2,  Grey 
agate  1. 

Position.     Wrist. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  12,  Brit.  Mus.  5,  Turin  4, 
Cairo  4,  Murch  3,  Price  3.  Of  those  where  the  side  is 
rioted  there  are  12  right  hands,  16  left  hands. 

12.    FIST  CLENCHED. 

Name.     Khefo. 

Meaning.  Vigorous  action,  as  in  the  determinative  hiero- 
glyph of  action. 

Varieties.     Bight  and  Left. 

Period.     VI;  12d,  e,  Roman. 

Figures.  12a,  sard,  group  3  ;  12a  1 — 3,  sard,  group  1 ; 
12a  4 — 6,  sard,  groups  6,  7,  8  ;  12b,  sard,  group  3 ;  12b 
2,  3,  group  1 ;  12b  4,  green  felspar,  group  3;  12c,  bone, 
group  13  ;  12c  2 — 4,  sard,  group  1 ;  12c  5,  group  3  ;  12d, 
steatite,  crescent  and  other  signs  on  base;  12d 2,  steatite 
bird  on  base;  12e  (pi.  xlvi),  steatite,  crescent.  This  type, 
12d,  e,  seems  to  be  Roman,  under  Syrian  or  Asianic 
influence.  See  Dcshasheh,  xxvi,  17,  19,  20,  24  ;  3  of 
carnelian  :  1  brown  limestone. 

Materials.  Carnelian  23,  Steatite  2,  Blue  glaze  2,  Green 
felspar  1,  Brown  limestone  1,  Bone  1. 

Position.     Wrist. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  17,  Price  3,  Brit.  Mus.  2.  Of 
those  noted  there  are  15  right  fists,  5  left  fists. 


18.    FIST,  THUMB  BETWEEN  FIRST  AND 
SECOND  FINGERS. 

Name.     Unknown. 

Meaning.  Sexual  power  (?).  Against  evil  eye  in  Italy, 
BELL.,  xv,  11. 

Varieties.     Right  and  Left. 

Period.     Roman. 

Figures.  13a,  dark  blue  glaze;  13b,  dark  blue  glaze 
with  yellow  points,  group  22. 

Materials.     Blue  glaze. 

Collections.     Cairo  R.  4,  L.  1,  Turin  3,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

14.    TWO  HANDS  SIDE  BY  SIDE. 

Name.     Unknown. 

Meaning.     United  action  (?) 

Period.     VI. 

Figure.     14,  blue  glaze,  Mahasna,  tomb  13. 

Material.     Blue  glaze. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

15.    LEG. 

Name.      Uort. 

Meaning.  Power  of  walking.  In  Italy  a  leg  carved  in 
bone  is  an  evil  eye  charm  (BELL.,  xiii,  19). 

Period.     Vth  and  Vlth  dynasties. 

Figures  15a,  carnelian  whitened,  showing  ankle  bone, 
left  leg ;  15a  2,  smaller,  group  2 ;  ISb,  carnelian  ;  15b2,  light 
brown  agate;  15c,  light  red  agate,  showing  heel;  15c2, 
similar,  smaller;  15c  3,  sard,  group  7;  15d,  milky  and 
brown  agate;  15e,  sard;  also  15e  2,  3  ;  15e4,  group  1; 
15e  5,  6,  group  2  ;  15f,  sard,  group  14. 

Materials.     Sard  or  Carnelian  21,  Glaze  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  15  (groups  1,  2,  7, 14),  Murch 
4,  Brit.  Mus.  3. 

10.    PHALLUS. 

Name.     Moza,  Moza-kherti  entire  (MacG.  40). 

Period.     Only  Roman. 

Figures.  16a,  blue  glaze  with  yellow  ;  16b,  red  glass,  and 
16b2,  group  23 ;  16c,  d,  gold,  Memphis,  group  27. 

Materials.  Gold  2,  Green  glaze  4,  Green  glaze  with 
yellow  points  1,  Red  glass  2,  Haematite  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  5  (groups  23,  27),  E.  2,  St. 
Petersburg  2.  The  whole  figures  (16e,  green  glaze)  are 
entirely  of  Graeco-Roman  age,  and  there  is  no  trace  of  any 
such  amulet  in  use  by  Egyptians.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  E.  1, 
green  glaze. 

17.    SMA. 

Name.  Sma,  "  union  "  (LACAU,  80);  also  By,  "joy"  or 
"  ecstasy  "  (LACAU,  88) ;  comp.  French  "  fille  de  joie." 

Meaning.  Union,  see  earliest  form  Idt  dynasty,  Royal 
Tombs,  ii,  II. 

Period.  Form  figured  on  VI — XIII  coffins  as  an.emblem  ; 
amulets  all  of  XXVI. 


11 


A  M!U  L  E  TJS     OF     SIMILARS 


Figures.     17a,  b,  c,  e,  obsidian;  17d,  black  porphyry. 

Materials.  Obsidian  25  (?),  Haematite  2,  Black  porphyry 
1,  Yellow  limestone  1. 

Position.     Base  of  stomach,  umbilicus. 

Collections.  Cairo  16,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  Turin  2,  St. 
Petersburg  2,  Alnwick  2,  Price  2. 

18.    FROG  AND  TOAD. 

Names.  Heqt=Rana,  Frog.  Abnekh  for  Ab-nekhekh, 
"  spotty  old  man  "=Bufo  (?)  Toad. 

Meaning.  The  tadpole  is  the  hieroglyph  for  100,000. 
The  frog  is  the  emblem  of  Heqt,  the  goddess  of  birth,  and 
it  would  appear  to  symbolise  fecundity.  A  bowl  with  frogs 
modelled  all  over  the  interior  and  round  the  edge,  found  at 
Tell  Rotab  (Hi/ksos  and  Israelite  Cities,  pis  xxxii,  xxxiv  B), 
might  well  be  for  giving  potions  against  sterility.  There 
is,  however,  another  meaning  suggested  by  a  frog-pattern 
lamp,  with  the  quotation  "  I  am  the  Resurrection  "  (LANZONE, 
Diz.  Mit.  853),  which  has  been  accepted  as  indicating  the 
meaning  of  the  frog.  As  however  the  frog  is  one  of  the 
commonest  types  of  lamps  (Roman  Ehnasya,  pi.  Ixiii,  Ixiv), 
there  may  be  no  connection  between  it  and  a  text  quoted  on 
the  lamp. 

Varieties.  There  appear  to  be  two  more  species  repre- 
sented, a  wide  form,  the  toad,  with  the  legs  hidden  by  the 
body,  Bufo  viridis ;  and  a  slender  form,  the  frog,  with  the  legs 
outstanding,  and  often  ribbed  down  the  back,  liana  masca- 
reniensis.  These  are  not  however  generally  distinguished  in 
collections.  We  may  note  separately 

A.  Single  frog.  B.  Group  of  three  frogs.  C.  Group  of 
four  frogs. 

Period.  Many  examples  are  known  from  the  prehistoric 
times,  as  18a,  b;  others  in  the  Old  Kingdom,  as  181; 
many  in  the  XVHIth  and  XXIIud  dynasties,  as  18j,  k  ;  and 
some  in  the  XXVIth. 

Figures.  18a,  Bufo,  hard  grey  steatite;  18b,  Rana(?), 
greenish-grey  serpentine ;  18c,  Bufo,  ivory,  prehistoric ; 
18d,  cut  on  a  Nerita  shell ;  18e,  limestone,  Hawara,  XII ;  18f, 
limestone,  rude  scrolls,  and  uaz  pattern  on  base,  Hawara, 
XII;  18g,  liana,  bronze;  18h,  liana,  bronze;  18j,  liana, 
bright  red  glazed  pottery,  yellow  eyes,  late  XVIII;  18k, 
liana,  green  glaze,  XVIII ;  18k  2,  liana,  violet  glaze,  sa  sign 
on  base,  XVIII ;  181,  Bufo,  calcite,  group  13,  Vlth  dynasty  ; 
18m,  Bufo,  black  and  yellow  serpentine ;  18n,  green  felspar ; 
18o,  green  glass,  two  latter  for  inlaying ;  18p,  four  frogs  on 
base,  blue  glaze,  black  marks,  two  crocodiles,  head  to  tail, 
incised  on  base. 

Materials.  Green — Glazed  pottery  38,  Glazed  stone  3, 
Prase  3,  Green  felspar  4,  Green  jasper  2,  Glass  2.  Other 
colours  are  much  less  common ;  Lazuli  5,  Carnelian  7, 
Bronze  4,  Quartz  crystal  2,  Serpentine  3,  Steatite  2,  Lime- 
stone 3,  Diorite  2,  1  each  of  Haematite,  Chalcedony,  Agate, 
Amethyst,  Porphyry,  Calcite,  Violet  glaze,  Red  glaze, 
Ivory,  Shell.  See  Deshasheh,  xxvi,  25. 


Position.  On  neck  (1) ;  on  chest  (7) ;  right  arm  (1) ; 
lower  part  of  stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  A  33,  B  1,  C  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  20, 
St.  Petersburg  14,  Murch  11,  Turin  10,  Alnwick  10,  Price 
9,  Athens  4,  Edinburgh  1. 

19.    FLY. 

Name.  Ofef  (Z.  A.  S.,  1888,  78). 
Meaning.  The  collar  of  gold  flies,  given  to  a  very  active 
fighter  in  XVHIth  dynasty  (BREASTED  Records,  ii,  23,  585, 
587)  suggests  that  the  fly  was  an  emblem  of  activity  or 
swiftness ;  the  manner  in  which  the  decoration  is  named 
almost  indicates  that  there  was  a  corps  of  aides  de  camp 
thus  decorated.  The  great  collar  of  gold  flies  found  with 
the  jewels  of  Aah-hotep  and  Kames  is  in  Cairo. 

Varieties.  The  fly  with  rounded  wings  appears  distinct 
from  a  sharper-bodied  form  with  pointed  wings. 

Period.     Prehistoric,  XII  and  XVIII. 

Figures.  19a,  green  serpentine ;  19b,  c,  pink  limestone, 
prehistoric  ;  19d,  d  2,  red  jasper ;  19e,  gold,  XVIIIth  dynasty  ; 
19f,  black  glaze;  19f,  2—12,  blue  paste,  Kahun,  XII  ;  19g, 
green  glaze,  Kahun,  XII  (pi.  xliv) ;  19h,  green  glaze  (pi. 
xlvi);  19j,  string  of  yellow  glaze,  late  XVIII.  See  also 
131e  ;  19k,  dragon  fly,  XII,  Kahun  (xlv). 

Materials.  Yellow  glaze  30,  Blue  paste  13,  Gold  4,  Green 
glaze  3,  Lazuli  3,  Jasper  2,  Pink  limestone  2,  Green 
porpyhry  1,  Serpentine  1,  Glazed  steatite  1. 

Position.     Necklaces. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  52,  Murch  6,  Brit.  Mus.  2.  See 
Naqada,  pi.  Iviii. 

20.    PAPYRUS  SCEPTRE. 

Name.     Uaz  (MacG.  50). 

Meaning.  Flourishing,  as  of  green  plants;  youth. 
Chapter  159  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  reads  : — "  The  chapter 
of  the  column  of  green  felspar  put  on  the  neck  of  the 
deceased.  0  thou  who  comest  out  every  day,  in  the  divine 
house,  she  who  has  a  big  voice,  who  goeth  round  .  .  .  she 
takes  hold  of  the  potent  formulae  of  her  father,  the  mummy 
which  is  on  the  bull.  She  is  Renent." 

Period.  XXVI— XXX,  the  age  when  the  goddess  Uazet 
was  most  worshipped. 

Figures.  20a,  black  and  white  glass,  Tahutmes  III ;  20b, 
black,  white  and  yellow  glass,  XVIII ;  20c,  c  2,  green  glaze ; 
20d,  d  2,  d  3,  green  glaze  faded ;  20e — e  10,  green  glaze ;  20f, 
green-gone-brown  glaze ;  20f  2,  haematite ;  20f  3 — 5,  green 
felspar;  20f  6,  7,  green  glaze  ;  20g,  brown  limestone;  20g2, 
dull  green  calcite ;  20h,  blue  glaze,  XVIII  (?).  A  stem  of  the 
sceptre,  like  20c,  green  glaze,  yellow  leaves,  is  inscribed 
Khonsu  nefer  hotep  upt  renpet  nefer,  "  Khonsu-nefer-hotep 
open  a  good  year."  See  green  felspar  amulet  of  Khaernuas 
(MARIETTE,  Serapeum,  iii,  xx). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  38,  Blue  glaze  35,  Green  felspar 
16,  Beryl  4,  Prase  2,  Green  diorite  2,  Green  calcite  1 ;  thus 
more  than  two-thirds  are  green  or  blue.  Of  other  colours 


12 


AMULETS    OF    SIMILARS 


there  are  Haematite  14,  Lazuli  8,  Carnelian  2,  Basalt  2, 
Blue  glass  2,  Black  and  white  glass  2,  Gold  1,  Serpentine  1, 
Schist  1,  Steatite  1,  Brown  limestone  1. 

Position.  Forehead  (1)  ;  throat  (1);  top  and  middle 
rows  on  chest  (11)  ;  stomach  (1,  Dendereh),  or  low  on 
stomach  (2,  Nebesheh,  Abydos). 

Collections.  Cairo  45,  Turin  84,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  17,  E.  9, 
St.  Petersburg  18,  Price  10,  Alnwick  8,  Athens  4,  Murch  8, 
Edinburgh  2. 

21.    PAPYRUS  ON  A  PLAQUE. 

Name.     Uaz. 

Meaning.  To  be  as  durable  as  neshem  stone — green  fels- 
par. Chapter  160  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  is  as  follows : 
"  Giving  the  column  of  green  felspar.  I  am  the  column  of 
green  felspar,  which  cannot  be  crushed,  and  which  is  raised 
by  the  hand  of  Tahuti.  Injury  is  an  abomination  to  it.  If 
it  is  safe,  I  am  safe  ;  if  it  is  not  injured,  I  am  not  injured  ; 
if  it  receives  no  cut,  I  receive  no  cut.  Said  by  Tahuti,  arise, 
come  in  peace,  lord  of  Heliopolis,  lord  who  resides  in  Pu. 
When  Shu  has  arrived,  he  found  the  stone  at  Sheneinu,  as 
its  name  is  neshem.  He  (deceased)  makes  his  abode  in  the 
enclosure  of  the  great  god;  whilst  Turn  resides  in  his 
dwelling,  his  limbs  will  never  be  crushed." 

Period.  As  these  are  always  of  hard  stone  they  probably 
belong  entirely  to  the  XXVIth  dynasty,  before  glass  became 
common  for  amulets. 

Figures.  21a,  green  felspar,  fine  colour,  incised ;  21b, 
dull  green  felspar,  in  relief;  21c,  dull  green  felspar  ;  21  c  2, 
half  as  large  again,  dull  green  felspar. 

Materials.  Green  felspar  21,  Beryl  3,  Serpentine  1, 
Sard  1. 

Position.     Throat  (1) ;  Middle  of  chest,  and  shoulders  (5). 

Collections.  Cairo  10,  Alnwick  5,  Turin  4,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4, 
Price  3,  St.  Petersburg  8. 

22.    JACKAL   HEAD. 

Name.  Unknown. 

Meaning.  To  find  the  way  in  the  future  world,  as  the 
jackal  was  "  the  opener  of  ways"  (up-uatu)  in  the  desert: 
or  perhaps  for  watchfulness. 

Period.     V.— VI. 

Figures.  22a,  bone,  group  8 ;  22b,  yellow  sard,  group  3  ; 
22c,  calcite,  group  13  ;  22c  2,  carnelian,  group  7  ;  22d,  pink 
steatite.  22d  2,  minute  carnelian,  group  10 ;  22e,  bone  ; 
22e  2,  carnelian,  group  7  ;  22f,  carnelian  ;  22f  2,  same, 
ruder,  group  1 ;  22g,  green  felspar ;  22g  2,  green  felspar, 
group  80 ;  22h,  j,  green  limestone ;  22  k,  carnelian ; 
22  1,  m,  n,  o,  blue  glaze,  Zaraby,  Vlth  dynasty  ;  22p,  ebony, 
pi.  xlv. 

Materials.  Sard  and  carnelian  16,  Blue  glaze  8,  Green 
felspar  2,  Green  limestone  2,  Lazuli  1,  Bone  1,  Wood  1. 

Position.     Wrist. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  27. 


28.    LEOPARD  HEAD. 

Name.  Pek. 

Meaning.  Valour,  as  in  the  title  ao  pehti,  "great  and 
valorous."  Possibly  used  for  protection  from  wild 
beasts. 

Period.     V.— VI. 

Figures.  23,  blue  paste,  Mahasna,  tomb  461.  Deshasheh, 
xxvi,  1  lazuli. 

Materials.     Lazuli  1,  Blue  paste  1,  Greenglaze  1. 

Position.     Wrist. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  Turin  1. 

24.    CLAW. 

Name.     Ogat. 

Meaning.  Leopard's  claw  used  for  protection  from  wild 
beasts,  Central  Africa  (Leicester  Museum).  Cray  fish  claw 
against  evil  eye  (BELL.,  xi,  3).  Elk's  claw  (BELL.,  xiv,  8). 

Period.     Prehistoric,  Roman. 

Figures.  24a,  red  porphyry;  24b,  c,  green  serpentine; 
24d,  e,  f,  green  serpentine,  probably  claws;  all  the  previous, 
prehistoric ;  24g,  sard,  Mahasna,  tomb  386 ;  24h,  j, 
bronze,  Illahun,  Roman.  Natural  claw,  Sliurafa,  Roman, 
pi.  xiv,  24k. 

Materials.  Red  porphyry  1,  Green  serpentine  5,  Sard  1, 
Bronze  2,  Actual  claw  of  large  bird,  vulture  (?)  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  10. 

25.    TOOTH. 

Name.     Nuzhi. 

Meanings.  Human  tooth,  for  toothache  (PLINY,  xxviii,  11). 
Child's,  first  shed,  for  pains  (P.  xxviii,  9).  Lion's,  for  gaining 
favour  (P.  xxviii,  25).  Leopard's,  to  gain  aid  of  friend's 
spirit,  Central  Africa  (Leicester  Museum).  Hyaena,  tooth- 
ache (P.  xxviii,  27) ;  of  left  side,  pain  in  stomach,  nightmare 
(P.  xxviii,  27) ;  of  right  upper,  to  strike  animals  in  hunting 
(P.  xxviii,  27).  Wolf's,  for  dentition  (P.  xxviii,  28).  Dog'a, 
quartan  fever  (P.  xxx,  30),  evil  eye,  hydrophobia  (BELL.,  xii,  9, 
15  ;  xiii,  1).  Horse's,  evil  eye  (BELL.,  xii,  8).  Deer's,  repels 
serpents  (P.  xxviii,  42).  Wild  boar's,  evil  eye  (BELL.,  xii,  5). 
Pig's,  dentition  (BELL.,  xii,  3).  Boar's  tusk,  evil  eye  (BELL., 
Am.  58,  Fet.  35).  Dolphin's,  infant's  fright  (P.  xxxii,  48). 
Fossil  shark's,  dentition  and  lightning*'  (BELL.,  xi,  29). 
Crocodile's  right  tooth,  aphrodisiac ;  eye  teeth,  for  periodic 
fevers  and  aphrodisiac  (PLINY,  xxviii,  28 ;  xxxii,  50). 

Varieties.  Crocodile  teeth.  Fossil  shark  teeth.  Glazed 
pottery  figure. 

Period.     XXII  to  Roman. 

Figures.  23a,  tooth  of  shark,  fossil,  one  of  the  Lamnidae, 
set  in  copper ;  25b,  tooth  of  crocodile  set  in  silver ;  25c, 
tooth  of  crocodile  set  in  gold ;  2Sd,  figure  of  a  tooth  carved 
in  bone ;  25e,  blue-green  glaze,  Roman ;  25f,  blue-green 
glaze ;  25g,  tusk  carved  from  shell,  prehistoric ;  25h,  tooth 
of  hyaena — tied  to  knotted  cord,  pi.  xviii,  131f. 

Materials.  Actual  teeth  4,  Green  glazed  pottery  2,  Bone 
1,  Shell  1,  Carnelian  1. 


18 


AMULETS     OF     SIMILARS 


Position.     On  neck  cord  knotted. 
Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  8,  Murch  1. 

26.    LOCUST. 

Name.    Si-nehem,  possibly  "  son  of  Neheinat,"  a  goddess. 


Meaning.     Protection  from  locusts  (?). 

Period.     Prehistoric,  XVIII,  Eoman. 

Figures.     26a,  b,  grass-green  and  yellow  glazes.   XVIII. 

Materials.     Limestone  1,  Yellow  glaze  2,  Green  glaze  1. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  Turin  1,  Murch  1. 


CHAPTEK  IV 
AMULETS  OF  POWERS 

DYNATIC  AMULETS,  27 — 61. 


THE  idea  of  conferring  powers  upon  the  dead  by  means 
of  amulets,  is  a  logical  development  of  the  previous  idea  of 
continuance  of  the  faculties.  If  the  hand  amulet  could 
give  the  power  of  action,  so  the  amulet  of  the  sceptre  which 
the  hand  held,  could  confer  the  power  connected  with  the 
sceptre  in  real  life.  When  once  this  idea  was  grasped,  the 
various  kinds  of  powers  could  be  conferred.  This  was 
carried  out  by  means  of  hieroglyphs  of  the  ideas,  as  the 
wagtail  or  duckling ;  by  emblems,  as  the  head-rest  or 
plummet ;  or  by  models  of  objects,  as  the  stairs  or  the 
crown.  Eacli  of  these  kinds  of  amulets  gave  the  powers  of 
qualities,  or  of  conditions,  or  of  authority.  In  this  class  of 
amulets  they  act  by  symbolism  of  some  kind,  and  not  as 
direct  similars  like  the  previous  class. 

27.    WAGTAIL. 

Name.     Sign  for  "great,"  ur. 
Meaning.     Conferring  greatness  (?). 
Period.     VI. 

Figures.  27a,  b,  bone,  group  5 ;  27b  2,  smaller,  car- 
nelian,  group  10. 

Materials.     Bone  2,  Carnelian  1. 
Position.     Necklace. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3. 

28.    HUMAN-HEADED   BIRD. 

Name.  Ba.  Ha-ran-lierot  (MacG.  49,  for  Haru-nchcr, 
full  of  face  ?). 

Meaning.  Human  soul,  probably  derived  from  large-faced 
owl  living  in  tombs. 

Varieties.  A,  plain.  B,  double.  C,  crowned.  D,  spread 
wings. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  28a,  violet  glass,  white  head  ;  28a  2,  violet  glass  ; 
28b,  double,  side  by  side,  green  and  black  glaze ;  28c,  green 
and  black  glaze ;  28d,  blue  and  black  glaze,  Ptolemaic, 
group  21. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  3,  Blue  glaze  8,  Grey  glaze  1, 
Bed  glass  2,  Lazuli  2,  White  glass  1,  Blue  and  white  glass  3, 
Blue  glass  7,  Green  glass  1,  Black  glass  1 :  D,  Gold  inlaid 
(Hor-uza,  Hawara). 


Position.     Throat  (1) ;  breast  (5). 

Collections.  Athens  13,  Alnwick  8,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  E.I, 
St.  Petersburg  2,  Murch  2. 

29.    DUCKLING. 

Name.     Za. 

Meaning.     Virility. 

Period.     VI. 

Figures.     29a,  sard,  group  7 ;    29b,  bone,  group  6. 

Materials.     Sard  1,  Bone  1. 

Position.     Necklace. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

30.    MAN'S    GIRDLE   TIE. 

Name.     Onkh,  Onkh-er-ta  khcr-redui-f  (L±c\v,  113). 

Meaning.  Life.  "  Many  lives  (pi.)  upon  the  earth  that 
is  beneath  his  feet"  (L.  113):  the  plural  of  life  may  imply 
a  belief  in  reincarnation. 

Varieties.  A,  pendant.  B,  on  open-work  ball  bead.  C, 
between  two  uas. 

Period.     XIX  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  30a,  blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group 
21 ;  30b,  light  blue  glaze,  Memphis  ;  30b  2,  green  glaze  ;  30c, 
green  glaze,  Sams  collection ;  30d,  blue  glaze,  XIX  dynasty  (?) 
(pl.xliv);  30e,  wax,  gilt,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  20  ;  30f, 
dark  blue  glass,  type  C  ;  30g,  dull  blue  glazed  ball,  alternate 
with  rams'  heads  bearing  disc,  XXV ;  30h,  red  jasper 
(pi.  xlvi).  See  Mahasna,  xxxiv,  tomb  435,  gold. 

Materials.  Gold  1,  Green  glaze  12,  Blue  glaze  8,  B  1, 
Purple  glaze  1,  Black  glaze  1,  Dark  blue  glass,  C  1,  Eed 
jasper  1. 

Position.     Chest  (Hawara)  ;  on  feet  (Dendereh). 

Collections.  Turin  8,  Cairo  8,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  6,  E.  1, 
Price  1,  St.  Petersburg  1. 

31.    NEFER. 

Name.  Nefer,  supposed  to  be  derived  from  the  heart  and 
windpipe,  as  the  markings  are  similar  to  those  upon  the 
ab  sign. 

Meaning.    Beauty  or  excellence. 

Peiiod.     XVIII.  ' 


14 


AMULETS     OF    POWERS 


Figures.  31a,  blue  glaze;  31  a  2,  obsidian;  31b  (pi.  xliv), 
gold,  XVIIIth  dynasty. 

Materials.    Gold  6,  Haematite  2,  Obsidian  1,  Blue  glaze  1. 

Position.    Necklace. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  7,  E.  1,  St.  Petersburg  2. 

82.    SISTRUM. 

Name.     Sesh-shet  (MacG.  16). 

Meaning.  Joy,  especially  in  the  dance.  Emblem  of 
Hathor. 

Period,     XXVI. 

Figures.  32a,  green  felspar,  Meroe ;  32a  2,  small,  blue 
glaze  ;  32b,  green  glaze,  Hathor  head  with  wig. 

Materials.     Green  felspar  1,  green  glaze,  3,  blue  glaze,  1. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  E.  1,  Price  1,  Athens  1. 

33.    COUNTERPOISE  OF  COLLAR. 

Name.     Menat.     With  a  fringe,  Menkhet  (LACAU,  441—3  ; 

MacG.  37). 

Meaning.     Joy,  health. 
Varieties.     A,  plain.      B.  inscribed. 
Period,     XXVI. 

Figures.  33a,  light  green  glaze,  "  says  Bastet,  give  life 
to  Pedu-heb-bast  eternally  "  ;  the  name  shows  the  person 
was  begotten  at  the  great  festival  of  Bubastis.  Head  and 
arms  of  Hathor ;  33a  2,  light  green  glaze,  "  Hapi  born  of 
Pedu-ast,  son  of  Zed-nebt-amu-auf-red  "  ;  33b,  light  green 
glaze,  plain;  33c,  c  2,  blue  glaze,  plain;  33d,  dark  green 
glaze,  three  cats  on  the  top,  Bast  on  the  stem,  Nehebka  (?) 
on  the  disc,  reverse  "  says  Bast  of  (pa)  Bast  "  ;  33e,  pi.  xliv, 
light  green  glaze,  group  16. 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  13,  Green  glaze  11,  Green  felspar  2, 
Bronze  1,  Gilt  wood  1. 

Position.  Back  of  neck  (4  at  Nebesbeh),  lower  chest 
(Abydos). 

Collections.  Price  11,  Turin  7,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  E.  2,  St. 
Petersburg  2. 

34.    HEAD-REST. 

Name.  Urs,  of  various  woods,  cedar  (LACAU,  110),  alien 
(L.  105),  and  mer  (L.  105). 

Meaning.  Restoration  of  the  head,  after  primitive  pre- 
paration of  the  corpse.  The  166th  chap.  B.D.  reads 
"  Chapter  of  the  Headrest.  Awake !  thy  sufferings  are 
allayed,  N.  Thou  art  awaked  when  thy  head  is  above  the 
horizon.  Stand  up,  thou  art  triumphant  by  means  of  what 
has  been  done  to  thee.  Ptah  has  struck  down  thine 
enemies.  It  has  been  ordered  what  should  be  done  to  thee. 
Thou  art  Horus,  the  son  of  Hathor,  the  flame  born  of  a 
flame,  to  whom  his  head  has  been  restored  after  it  had 
been  cut  off.  Thy  head  will  never  be  taken  from  thee 
henceforth.  Thy  head  will  never  be  carried  away." 

Varieties.  On  coffins  are  named  the  shen  head-rest 
(LACAU,  105),  the  mer  head-rest  (L.  105)  and  the  head-rest 
of  osh,  cedar  wood  (L.  110).  Solid  block  head-rests  were 
copied  in  Ptolemaic  time. 


Period.  First  in  tombs  of  Ilnd  dynasty,  full  size ;  con- 
tinued to  the  XHth,  and  then  also  painted  on  coffins ;  as 
small  amulets,  XXVI — Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  3*a,  b,  b  2,  c,  c  2,  c  3,  d,  haematite  ;  d  2,  large  and 
rough  ;  34e  (pi.  iv),  blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group 
21;  34e  2,  green  glaze,  Ptolemaic;  34f,  blue  glaze  (xlvi); 
3$g,  apple-green  glaze  (xlvi). 

Materials.  Haematite  70,  Blue  glaze  6,  Green  glaze  8, 
Basalt  2,  1  each  of  Red  glaze,  Dark  glaze,  Diorite,  Wood, 
"  Brown  stone." 

Position.  Left  breast,  left  foot,  low  on  stomach  (Den- 
dereh), neck  (Abydos). 

Collections.  Cairo  34,  Alnwick  15,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  3,  E.  4, 
St.  Petersburg  11,  Edinburgh  5,  Turin  4,  Price  4,  Murch  1. 

35.    ZAD. 

Name.  Zad  (MacG.  43).  Probably  the  four  columns 
which  supported  the  heaven  (Medum,  31,  xiii) ;  later  mis- 
taken by  the  Egyptians  for  the  backbone  of  Osiris.  The 
name  of  Nilometer  is  only  a  modern  guess. 

Meaning.  Stability  or  duration.  The  155th  chapter  of 
the  Book  of  the  Dead  reads  :  "  Here  is  thy  backbone  thou 
still-heart !  here  is  thy  spine  thou  still-heart.  Put  it  close 
to  thee.  I  have  given  thee  the  water  thou  needest.  Here 
it  is.  I  have  brought  to  thee  the  zad,  in  which  thy  heart 
rejoiceth.  Said  on  a  zad  of  gold  inlaid  into  the  substance  of 
sycotnore  wood,  and  dipped  into  the  juice  of  ankhamu.  It 
is  put  on  the  neck  of  this  Khu,  he  arrives  at  the  doors  of  the 
Duat,  and  he  comes  forth  by  day,  even  though  he  be  silent. 
This  zad  is  put  in  its  place  on  the  first  day  of  the  year,  as 
is  done  to  the  followers  of  Osiris." 

Varieties.     A,  plain.     B,  crowned  with  feathers  and  horns. 
C,  double.     D,  with  two  apes  (MacG.  74).     E,  with  Hathor. 
Period,     VI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  35a,  sard,  Vlth  dynasty  (?) ;  33b,  blue  glaze, 
XVIII ;  35c,  c  2— c  12,  pale  green,  Hawara,  XXVI ;  38c  13, 14, 
red  glass  ;  35c  15,  yellow  steatite  ;  35c  16,  white  limestone ; 
35C 17—22,  green  glaze  ;  35d,  pale  green  ;  35e,  pale  green, 
Hawara ;  3Sf,  green,  the  top  peg  of  the  column  much 
developed  ;  35g,  green  and  brown  glaze,  crowned,  and  with 
two  arms  holding  uas  sceptres  ;  35h,  blue-green  glaze,  with 
onkh  and  uas  on  neb  sign ;  35j,  micaceous  steatite ;  35k, 
blue  glass ;  351,  blue  glass,  three  double  capitals ;  35m, 
yellow  glass,  Anpu  holding  the  zad ;  35n,  green  glass,  zad 
crowned  with  sma  feathers ;  35o  (xliv),  blue  glaze  faded, 
XIX,  with  30d.  See  39,  b,  c,  d,  on  pi.  iv. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  191,  Blue  glaze  56,  Lazuli  37, 
Carnelian  37,  Grey  glaze  6,  Red  glass  2,  Gold  2,  Obsidian 
1,  Blue  glass  4,  Yellow  steatite  1. 

Position.  Throat  (2)  ;  top  of  chest  and  base  of  chest 
(17)  ;  across  stomach  (8). 

Collections.  Cairo  64,  St.  Petersburg  53,  Turin  40,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  23,  E.  11,  Alnwick  8,  Price  10,  Edinburgh  9, 
Athens  8,  Murch  2. 


15 


AMULETS     OF     POWERS 


86.    SQUARE. 

Name.  Klieses,  square,  connected  with  Seqeq,  the  plum- 
met (see  next) ;  a  play  of  words  similar  to  the  variation  of 
two  Arab  words  for  glass,  Qizaz  and  Zigag. 

Meaning.  Rectitude  (?).  It  is  not  the  hap  sign,  carried 
by  kings  in  festival,  as  that  is  acute-angled  and  equal-sided, 
whereas  this  is  right-angled  and  unequal,  and  is  always 
associated  with  the  plummet. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  36a,  b,  b  2,  c,  d,  e,  e  2,  f,  haematite  ;  36g,  blue 
glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21  ;  36g  2,  green  glaze  ; 
36h,  pale  green  glaze,  fine  work. 

Materials.  Haematite  46,  Yellow  limestone  4,  Basalt  3, 
Green  glaze  4,  Blue  glaze  2,  Lazuli  1. 

Position.  Top  row  on  chest,  or  left  breast  (6),  with 
plummet;  stomach. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  10,  E.  2,  St.  Petersburg  9, 
Alnwick  6,  Turin  4,  Edinburgh  8,  Athens  8,  Price  1,  Murch  1. 

37.    PLUMMET. 

Name.     Seqeq  (see  previous). 

Meaning.  Making  equilibrium.  Qe.qt,  determined  by  a 
plummet,  is  the  name  of  Aswan,  where  the  sun  is  in 
equilibrium  between  north  and  south  at  midsummer. 
Probably  worn  to  impart  an  evenly-balanced  mind,  which 
is  held  up  as  a  great  virtue  of  character  in  the  Proverbs. 

Period.     XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  37a,  b,  b  2,  c,  c  2,  d,  e,  e  2,  haematite  ;  37f,  blue 
and  black  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  37g,  green 
glaze,  Ptolemaic,  showing  the  plummet  cord. 

Materials.  Haematite  3,  Slate  4,  Blue  glaze  4,  Basalt  2, 
"  Brown  marble  "  1,  "  Dark  marble  "  1,  Green  glaze  1. 

Position.  Top  and  middle  of  chest  or  left  breast  (7),  low 
on  stomach  (2). 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  8,  E.  2,  Alnwick  10,  Cairo  9, 
St.  Petersburg  9,  Turin  6,  Price  2,  Athens  2,  Edinburgh  1, 
Murch  1. 

38.    FORKED   LANCE. 

Name.  Peseshkef,  from  j)esesh  to  divide,  the  forked  flint 
lance  being  used  to  divide  the  mouth  of  the  mummy  in  the 
ceremony  of  "opening  the  mouth." 

Meaning.  To  confer  the  power  of  speaking  and  feeding, 
as  described  in  Chapter  23  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead,  on  the 
opening  of  the  mouth. 

Varieties.    The  different  forms  descend  as  follows  : — 


Figures.  38a,  b,  black  jasper;  38c,  black  steatite  ;  38d, 
e,  f,  obsidian  ;  38g,  bronze  ;  38h,  green  glass.  These  last 
two  may,  perhaps,  be  intended  for  a  clothing  amulet  sur- 
mounted by  feathers ;  or  if  the  flint  forked  lance  was 
wrapped  with  cloth  for  a  handle,  it  might  then  start  this 
form.  A  similar  form  in  carnelian  is  of  prince  Khaemuas 
(MAKIETTE,  Serapeum,  iii,  xi). 

Materials.  Obsidian  4,  Black  jasper  2,  Black  steatite  1, 
Bronze  1,  Green  glass  1. 

Position.     Throat  (1);  chest  (6) ;   stomach  (1). 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  9,  E.  1. 

Owing  to  the  resemblance  to  the  Plumes  (39)  and  Feathers 
(41)  following,  these  three  amulets  are  confused  in  cata- 
logues, and  were  probably  not  truly  distinguished  by  the 
Egyptians.  The  Materials  and  Collections  stated  here  are 
therefore  restricted  to  those  which  can  be  verified. 

39.    OSTRICH    PLUMES. 

Names.     Shuti,  the  two  plumes  ;  or  Shed-shed. 

Meaning.  The  two  ostrich  plumes  were  supposed  to  fly 
away  in  the  wind,  bearing  the  king's  soul  (Sethe  in  Mahasna, 
19),  and  the  pair  of  plumes  therefore  were  provided  as  a 
vehicle  for  the  soul  of  the  deceased.  The  single  plume  is 
probably  the  emblem  of  Maat. 

Varieties.     Double  plume.     Single  plume. 

Period.     XIX  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  39a,  b,  obsidian  ;  39a  2,  obsidian  ;  39a  3,  4, 
white  limestone  ;  39b  2,  slate  ;  39b  3,  b  4,  serpentine  ; 
39c,  gilt  wax ;  39d  (pi.  xliv)  green  glass ;  39e  (pi.  xlvi) 
basalt;  inscribed  "Osiris  lord  of  Restau.  The  high  priest, 
King's  son,  Khaemuas,"  son  of  Ramessu  II;  39f,  green 
glaze  (xlvi). 

Materials.  Obsidian  3,  Serpentine  3,  Basalt  2, 1  each  of 
Alabaster,  White  limestone,  Blackened  limestone,  Green 
glaze,  Gilt  wax. 

Positions.     Throat  (1) ;  chest  (6) ;  stomach  (2). 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  E.  6,  Athens  4,  Edinburgh  3, 
Murch  2. 

40.    TWO  PLUMES,  DISC,  AND  TWO  HORNS. 

Name.     Sma. 

Meaning.     The  union  of  different  powers. 
Varieties.     A,  complete.     B,  disc  and  horns  only. 
Period.     Ptolemaic. 


1  :6 
6600  B.C. 


1  :  10 
6000  B.C. 


1  :  2 
5500  B.C. 


1:2 
4000  B.C. 


1:  1 

3000  B.C. 


16 


AMULETS     OF    POWERS 


Figures.  40a,  white  glass  plumes,  red  glass  disc,  purple- 
black  glass  horns.  Upon  the  zad,  40b,  green  and  black 
glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  40c, d,dark  blue  and 
black  glaze,  Dendereh,  group  26.  See  also  35n,  green  glass ; 
C.  Abydos,  group  10  (pi.  1). 

Materials.    Blue  glaze  8,  Coloured  glass  1. 

Position.     Chest. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  4. 

41.    PAIR  OF  FEATHERS. 

Name.     Qa. 

Meaning.    Elevation. 

Varieties.    A,  plain.     B,  with  horns. 

Period.     XXVI  (?). 

Figure.     41,  hard  brown  limestone,  Univ.  Coll.  E. 

Materials.  Serpentine  17,  Basalt  4,  Obsidian  4,  Green 
felspar  4,  "  Yellow  stone  "  4,  Brown  limestone  4,  Haematite  8, 
Lazuli  1,  Black  limestone  1,  Beryl  1,  Green  slate  1,  Green 
diorite  1. 

Position.  Top  of  chest  (3) ;  middle  row  (1) ;  low  on 
stomach  (2). 

Collections.  Cairo  24,  Athens  6,  St.  Petersburg  4, 
Alnwick  3,  Price  2,  Univ.  Coll.  E.  1,  Edinburgh  1.  Perhaps 
some  of  these  really  refer  to  the  previous  classes  38 — 39. 

42.    RISING   SUN. 

Name.     Adkhet. 

Meaning.  Power  "  to  behold  Ra  at  his  coming  forth  in 
the  horizon  "  (Labyrinth,  36). 

Period.    XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.     42a,  red  jasper  ;  42a  2,  light  green  serpentine. 

Materials.  "  Red  sandstone  "  (  ?  Jasper)  9,  Red  jasper  7, 
Blue  glaze  4,  Red  glass  2,  Red  granite  1,  Green  glaze  1, 
"  Green  stone  "  (Murch),  Light  green  serpentine  1.  Thus 
nearly  all  are  red. 

Position.     Low  on  chest. 

Collections.  Cairo  11,  Turin  4,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  E.  2, 
Alnwick  3,  St.  Petersburg  3,  Price  2,  Murch  1. 

43.    DISC   OF  SUN. 

Name.  Ro  ,-  pronounced  Ria  XVIII  dynasty,  Ra  or  Re 
Greek. 

Meaning.     To  see  the  sun. 

Period.     XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.     43a,  glaze  faded  white  ;  43b,  steatite. 

Materials.  Lazuli  8,  "Black  stone"  3,  Yellow  lime- 
stone 2,  Green  felspar  1,  Beryl  1,  Agate  1,  Granite  1,  White 
glaze  2,  Steatite  1. 

Position.  Top  of  chest  (1)  ;  middle  of  stomach  (4) ;  left 
hand  (2). 

Collections.  Cairo  12,  Turin  8,  Edinburgh  2,  Univ.  Coll. 
P.  2,  St.  Petersburg  1. 

44.  CROWNED   SUN. 
Name.    ? 
Meaning.    To  see  the  sun  ruling. 


Period.    XXX(?). 

Figure.     44,  Steatite. 

Materials.     Steatite  1,  Obsidian  1. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  Alnwick  1. 

45.    BARK  OF  THE  MOON. 

Name.    Aoh  (LANZONB,  Diz.  Mit.,  xxivii). 
Meaning.     To  voyage  in  the  sky  after  the  sun. 
Period,    XVIII- 

Figures.    45  (and  43  2)  carnelian,  Hawara,  XVIII. 
Materials.    Carnelian  4,  Green  glaze  1. 
Position.     Necklace. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Kennard  1,  Cairo  1,  Brit. 
Mus.  1. 

46.    STAIRS. 

Name.     Khet. 

Meaning.  Ascent  to  sky.  In  the  Book  of  the  Dead, 
Chapter  22,  the  dead  says :  "  I  am  Osiris  the  lord  of  Restau, 
the  same  who  is  at  the  head  of  the  staircase,"  up  which  the 
dead  are  shown  mounting  to  the  judgment.  In  Chapter  149, 
in  the  eleventh  domain  the  dead  says :  "  I  raise  my  ladder 
up  to  the  sky  to  see  the  gods,"  with  a  vignette  showing  a 
flight  of  stairs.  This  form  may  have  become  confused  with 
that  of  a  throne  (suggested  by  SCHAFEK  in  Z.  A.  S.  xliii,  66) 
as  the  stairs  are  shown  in  a  boat  in  the  vignette  of 
Chapter  110. 

Varieties.     6  to  9  steps. 

Period,     XXVI  to  XXX. 

Figure.     46,  green  glaze. 

Materials.     Blue  glaze  4,  Green  glaze  2. 

Collections.  Turin  3  of  7  steps,  1  of  9  steps,  Univ. 
Coll.  E.  1  of  6  steps,  Price  2. 

47.    HORNET. 

Name.     Bat. 

Meaning.     Royal  power  of  Lower  Egypt. 

Period.     VI  to  XII. 

Figures.  47a,  yellow  sard,  group  3  ;  47b,  orange  sard  ; 
47c,  blue  paste,  Mahasna,  tomb  386 ;  47d,  blue  glaze, 
XII  dynasty. 

Materials.  Sard  and  carnelian  9,  Blue  glaze  1,  Black 
limestone  1,  Brown  agate  1. 

Position.     Wrist,  2  (Deshasheh,  xxvi,  3,  21). 

Collections.     British  Museum  6,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4  (groups 

3,9). 

48.    WHITE   CROWN. 

Name.     Hezt  (LACAU,  486). 
Meaning.    Royal  power  of  Upper  Egypt. 
Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  48a,  green  glass  (?)  burnt ;  48b,  48b  2,  light 
green  glaze  ;  48c,  48c  2,  48c  3,  light  green  glaze  ;  48  d,  d  2, 

green  glaze. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  26,  Blue  glaze  12,  Green  glass  1, 
Black  glaze  1,  White  glaze  (faded  ?)  1. 


17 


AMULETS     OF     POWERS 


Collections.  Cairo  14,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  6,  E.  8,  Turin  6,  St. 
Petersburg  5,  Price  8,  Alnwick  3,  Murch  1. 

49.    RED   CROWN. 

Name.  Deshert ,-  or  Sekhemti  (LACAU,  481),  probably 
confused  with  the  double  crown  of  that  name  (L.  488). 

Meaning.    Eoyal  power  in  Lower  Egypt. 

Varieties.     Crown  alone.     Crown  on  neb. 

Period.     XXVI. 

Figures.  49a,  a  2,  green  glaze  ;  49b,  c,  c  2,  d  2,  green 
glaze,  Memphis ;  39b  2,  green  glaze  ;  49d,  blue  glazed  stone- 
ware, group  28  ;  49e  to  e  8,  pi.  xliv,  green  glaze,  crown  on 
neb. 

Materials.     Green  glaze  30,  Blue  glaze  9. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  14,  E.  8,  Cairo  12,  St.  Peters- 
burg 6,  Turin  5,  Price  4,  Murch  1. 

50.    DOUBLE   CROWN   ON   NEB. 

Name.     Sekhemti. 

Meanimg.     Eoyal  power  in  Upper  and  Lower  Egypt. 

Period.     VI. 

Figures.     Mahasna,  xxxiv,  xliii,  tomb  87. 

Material.     Gold. 

Position.     Necklace. 

51.    VULTURE  AND  URAEUS. 

Name.     Smauti. 

Meaning.     Eoyal  power  in  Upper  and  Lower  Egypt. 

Period.     VI. 

Figures.     Mahasna,  xxxiv,  xliii,  tomb  87. 

Material.     Gold. 

Position.     Necklace. 

52.    ROYAL   CROOK. 

Name.     Heqt   (MacG.    54)  ;    Heqt   Out,  "  Crook  of   the 
flocks,"  used  by  shepherds  (LACAU,  317). 
Meaning.     Eule  in  Heliopolis. 
Period.    XXVI  (?). 
Figure.     Not  here. 
Material.     Grey  glaze  1. 
Collection.     Turin  1. 

53.    ROYAL    SCOURGE. 

Name.     Nekhekh  (MacG.  54). 
Meaning.     Eule  in  Heliopolis. 

Figure.     MacG.  papyrus  54.    Found  broken  up  in  tombs 
of  the  XHth  dynasty,  full-sized,  in  limestone  (Riqqeh). 
Collection.     Portions  in  Univ.  Coll.  P. 

54.    SHEPHERD'S   STICK. 

Name.  Uas  (MacG.  28 ;  LACAU,  815).  Zom  (LACAU,  314), 
with  wavy  stem. 

Meaning.  Guidance  of  the  flock.  Such  a  form  is 
regularly  used  by  the  eastern  Bedawy  at  present. 
Secondary  sense,  Eule  at  Thebes. 


Varieties.     A,  alone.     B,  with  Zad  and  Onkh. 

Periods.     XXVI  to  XXX  (?). 

Figures.  84a,  gold  ;  54b,  blue  glass,  burnt ;  54c  to  c  8, 
pi.  xliv,  blue  glaze,  faded,  with  30d,  33o.  See  35h  with 
Zad  and  Onkh. 

Materials.     Gold  1,  Blue  glass  1,  Blue-green  glaze  B  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  and  8  of  type  B. 

55.  DISC   MACE. 

Name.     Men  (MacG.  27). 
Meaning.     Fighting  power. 
Period.     Prehistoric. 

Figure.     S5a,  pi.  xliv,  white  limestone  with  black  spots, 
prehistoric  ;  S5a  2,  plain  limestone  (Tarkhan  II). 
Material.     Painted  limestone. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5. 

56.  PEAR  MACE. 

Name.    Hez  (MacG.  27). 

Meaning.     Fighting  power. 

Period.     Prehistoric,  IV,  XII. 

Figure.     No  models,  only  actual  maces  buried. 

Material.     White  limestone,  Eed  granite  in  XII  (Riqqeh). 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  many. 

57.    FEATHERS   AND  SCOURGE. 

Name.     Ames  (MacG.  27). 
Meaning.     Euling  power. 
No  amulets  known. 

58.    URAEUS   SERPENT. 

Names.  Anrot,  any  goddess  (MacG.  6,  30).  Merseger, 
goddess  (LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  cxxviii).  Onkh-neter  (MacG.  8). 
Eannut,  goddess  (LANZ.,  D.  M.,  clxxxix).  Sat  (LACAU,  94). 
Seqer  (MacG.  7  ;  LACAU,  34,  91).  Shem-rcmtu  (MacG.  9 ; 
LACAU,  94).  Urt  hckat,  goddess  (MacG.  10).  Zct  (LACAU,  94). 
Also  conferring  qualities,  "  giving  youth  "  (LACAU,  90)  ; 
and  with  coiled  body,  "  giving  being "  (?)  (LACAU,  91). 
Mehen,  uraeus  on  the  crown. 

Meanings.  Goddesses  above  named  ;  Knowledge  ;  Divine 
life  ;  Going  among  men  ;  Royal  power  of  judgment ;  Giving 
youth,  and  being. 

Varieties.  A,  royal  form.  B,  wavy.  C,  coiled.  D,  winged. 
E,  double.  F,  lion  head.  G,  cat  head.  H,  human  head. 
J,  crowned. 

Period.     XXVI  to  Eoman. 

Figures.  58a,  green  glass,  crowned  uraeus  on  column ; 
58b,  carnelian,  with  silver  suspension  loop ;  58c,  branch  of 
red  coral,  with  silver  uraeus  twisted  upon  it ;  S8d,  bronze,  tail 
coiled  behind  ;  58e,  bronze,  double  crowned  with  sun  discs 
inlaid  ;  58f,  bronze,  crowned  with  discs ;  58g,  pewter  plate, 
incised  ;  58  h,  green  glaze,  Memphis  ;  58j,  light  blue  glaze, 
Memphis ;  S8k,  green  glaze,  Memphis ;  38k,  2,  3,  4,  5, 


18 


AMULETS     OF     POWERS 


green  glaze,  Nebesheh ;  581,  faded  green  glaze,  Memphis ; 
S8m,  green  glaze ;  58n,  grey  glaze ;  880,  green  glaze,  XVIII ; 
88p,  blue  glass.  PL  xliv,  88q,  gold ;  88r,  electrum ;  88s, 
silver ;  88t,  u,  blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic.  See  gold 
from  Serapeum  (MARIETTE,  Ser.,  in,  xi). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  35,  Blue  glaze  26,  Lazuli  4, 
Bronze  8,  Gold  2,  Yellow  glaze  1,  Grey  glaze  1,  Green  glass 
1,  White  agate  1,  Pink  limestone  1,  Carnelian  2,  Silver  on 
red  coral  1,  Eed  glass  1. 

Position.  Forehead  (2;;  necklace  (1);  chest  (10); 
stomach  (8) ;  feet  (1). 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  15,  E.  4,  Cairo  15,  St.  Peters- 
burg 8,  F  1,  G  1,  Turin  8,  Alnwick  7,  Murch  6,  Athens  F  2, 
Edinburgh  1. 

59.    MAN  KNEELING  WITH  PALM  BRANCHES. 

Name.     Helt. 

Meaning.    Millions  of  Years.     Duration. 

Period.    XII,  Eoman. 

Figures.  S9a,  gold  ;  59b,  gold,  group  4  ;  S9c,  lead  ;  59d, 
apple-green  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  S9e, 
silver  (pi.  xlvi).  And  see  Mahasna,  xxxiv,  xliii,  tombs  87,  435. 

Materials.     Gold  2,  Silver  1,  Lead  1,  Green  glaze  1. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  5. 

60.    BOUND   CAPTIVE. 

Name.     Kheft. 

Meaning.    Power  over  a  slave. 


Varieties.  A,  figure  standing.  B,  kneeling.  C,  painted 
on  soles  of  sandals. 

Period.    Prehistoric  to  Roman. 

Figures.  80a,  red  limestone,  quartz  crystal  eyes  inlaid, 
male,  prehistoric  ;  60b,  light  blue  glaze,  female,  XXVI ;  60c, 
white  limestone,  male,  XXVI ;  60c  2,  similar  figure  found 
at  Defenneh  (Tanis,  ii,  xl);  60d,  lead,  male,  wrapped  in 
sheet  lead ;  80e  (pi.  xlv),  wax,  two  figures  standing,  hands 
joined  ;  60f,  wax,  perhaps  a  figure ;  see  also  figures  on  soles 
of  sandals  (Univ.  Coll.  E)  of  Roman  mummies,  Hawara, 
(Roman  Portraits,  x,  5),  and  mud  figure  of  Hyksos  age 
(Hyksos  and  Israelite  Cities,  vi,  8). 

Materials.  Lead  1,  Red  limestone  1,  White  limestone  2, 
Blue  glaze  1,  Wax  2,  Cartonnage  1. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  6,  E.  2,  Price  1. 


61.    FIGURE  WITH  NECKLACES. 

Name.  ShapC?).  See  shap,  to  accept;  shapep,  rich; 
shapt,  to  adorn. 

Meaning.  From  the  stoutness,  adornment,  and  easy 
posture,  this  seems  intended  to  represent  wealth.  Compare 
the  Chinese  embodiment  of  wealth. 

Period.     Roman. 

Figure.     61,  black  steatite,  Quft. 

Material.     Black  steatite. 

Collection.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 


CHAPTER  V 
AMULETS  OF  PROPERTY 

KTEMATIC   AMULETS,  62—82. 


THESE  amulets,  representing  the  funeral  offerings  of  food 
and  drink,  and  the  furniture  of  objects  for  the  use  of  the 
dead,  are  peculiarly  Egyptian.  From  very  early  times 
provision  for  the  continued  life  of  the  deceased  was  placed 
in  the  grave,  sometimes  on  an  immense  scale.  As  the 
belief  in  substitutes  grew,  so  gradually  models  came  to 
replace  the  real  objects,  and  then  small  amulets  were  sub- 
stituted for  the  models.  It  might  seem  doubtful  where  to 
divide  between  this  class  and  the  last.  The  mace  heads 
are  classed  as  amulets  of  power,  as  the  mace  is  used 
symbolically  by  the  king  in  all  periods ;  but  the  spear  head 
included  as  property,  is  never  used  symbolically.  Again, 
the  plummet  and  square  are  probably  emblems  of  qualities, 
as  the  dead  is  never  represented  as  building ;  but  the 
writing  tablet  and  seal  are  classed  as  property,  as  in  the 
future  life  the  deceased  would  require  to  write  and  seal 
orders.  These  are  the  means  of  writing  rather  than  symbols 


of  the  power  of  writing.     The  border  line  of  the  two  classes 
is  seldom  really  in  question. 

The  order  followed  here  is,  food,  drink,  clothing  and 
objects  used. 

62.    OX   HEAD. 

Name.     Unknown. 

Meaning.  Food  offering.  An  actual  head  is  often 
found  in  graves,  from  the  prehistoric  down  to  the  XHth 
dynasty. 

Period.     Prehistoric  to  XVIII. 

Figures.  62a,  calcite ;  62b,  quartz,  green-glazed ;  62e, 
carnelian ;  62c,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  carnelian ;  62d,  clear  green 
serpentine,  prehistoric;  62e,  blue  glaze,  VI  (?);  62f,  red 
glass,  XVIII  (?) ;  62g  (pi  xliv),  quartz,  green-blue  glaze  ;  62h, 
carnelian. 

Materials.     Carnelian  9,  Quartz,  green-glazed  2,  Noble 


19 


D  2 


AMULETS     OF    PROPERTY 


serpentine  2, 1  each  of  Blackened  limestone,  Agate,  Calcite, 
Blue  glaze,  Bed  glass. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  18,  Murch  4. 

63.    COW,  LEGS  TIED. 

Name.    Rehen  (?). 

Meaning.  Food  offering.  ' '  The  image  of  a  cow,"  for  which 
the  162nd  chapter  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  is  recited, 
seems  rather  to  refer  to  a  free  cow,  and  not  to  a  sacrifice. 

Varieties.    A,  round.    B,  flat. 

Period.    V,  XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  63a,  red  jasper;  63b,  red  steatite,  both  round; 
63c,  flat,  red  glass  ;  63d,  red  glass ;  63e,  red  glass. 

Materials.  "  Red  sandstone  "  (?  jasper)  9,  Red  jasper  9, 
Red  glass  11,  Blue  glaze  8,  Green  glaze  1,  "Yellow  stone" 
1,  Brown  limestone  1,  Alabaster  1. 

Position.    Base  of  chest  and  lower. 

Collections.  Cairo  11,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  E.  2,  Price  6, 
Alnwick  4,  Turin  8,  Edinburgh  1,  Athens  1,  Murch  1. 

64.    GAZELLE. 

Meaning.  Food  offering  (?),  but  see  under  sacred  animals, 
Nos.  214—16. 

65.    JOINT   OF   MEAT. 

Name.     Ao,  Auo. 
Meaning.     Food  offering. 
Period.     VI  or  XII  (?). 

Figure.     65,  quartz  crystal,  part  of  the  ribs  and  side  of 
an  ox,  exquisitely  finished. 
Material.     Quartz  crystal. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 


66.    GOOSE   OR  DUCK. 

Name.     Sa. 

Meaning.     Food  offering. 
Varieties.     A,  whole  figure.     B,  head. 
Figures.     Not  here. 

Materials.     Blue   glass  2,   Rod  jasper    1,  Red  glaze  1, 
Green  glaze  3,  Black  and  white  glass  1,  Bronze  1. 
Position.     Mid  line,  Hawara. 
Collections.     Turin  2,  B  1,  Alnwick  1,  Price  1,  Murch  1. 

67.    DISH  OF  FLOUR   ON  MAT. 

Name.     Hotep. 

Meaning.     Flour  offering ;  a  dish  of  flour  on  a  reed  mat 
(Medum,  xi). 
Period.    XXVI. 
Figure.    Not  here. 
Material.     Green  glaze. 
Position.     Lower  row,  Hawara. 


68.    ALTAR  WITH  CAKES. 

Name.     Thet(?). 

Meaning.     Food  offering. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  68a,  blue  glaze,  square  cake;  68b,  bronze, 
four  cakes ;  68c,  bronze,  one  cake ;  68d,  gilt  wax,  three 
vases  and  three  cakes,  Dendereh,  group  20  (pi.  xliv) ;  68e, 
green  glaze  (pi.  xlvi). 

Materials.  Bronze  2,  Green  glaze  1,  Blue  glaze  1,  Gilt 
wax  1. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  Cairo  5. 

69.  DATE. 
Name.     Benr. 

Meaning.     Food  offering. 

Period.     XIX(?). 

Figure.     69,  green  glaze,  black  calyx. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

70.  VASE. 

Names.  45  different  names  are  known,  but  the  forms  are 
not  yet  distinguished. 

Meaning.     Drink  offerings  of  various  kinds. 

Varieties.  A,  heart  form,  two-handled.  B,  situla.  C,  one- 
handled  measure.  D,  pilgrim  bottle.  E,  heart  shape.  F, 
amphora.  G,  handled  jug.  H,  dipper. 

Period,    XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  70a,  diorite  ;  70b,  c,  d,  blue  glaze,  situla  ;  70e, 
green  glaze,  measure ;  70f,  green  glaze,  pilgrim  bottle ; 
70f  2,  red  glaze,  XVIII  Riqqeh ;  70g,  red  jasper ;  70h,  bronze, 
amphora,  Roman ;  70j,  green  glaze,  yellow  spots,  amphora, 
Roman ;  70k,  black  and  white  glass ;  701,  brown  pottery ; 
70m,  green  glaze,  Bes  head  on  it ;  70n,  bronze ;  70o,  pottery, 
(pi.  xlvi) ;  70p,  green  glaze  (xlvii) ;  70q,  black  and  green 
glass  (xlvii) ;  70r,  green  glaze,  Illahun,  XXIII  (xlv). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  8,  Blue  glaze  7,  Gold  2,  Bronze 
2,  Glass  1,  Brown  pottery  2,  Diorite  1,  Red  jasper  1, 
Wood  1. 

Position.     Throat. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  14,  E.  2,  Price  7,  Cairo  1. 

71.    COLLAR. 

Name.  Usekh,  with  hawk  heads  (MacG.  2);  Usekh  of 
lord  of  Eternity,  with  deep  rows  of  beads  (MacG.  82) ; 
Usekh  of  the  hawk,  with  spread  Lawk  on  middle  (MacG.  38) ; 
Usekh  of  the  vulture  and  uraeus,  with  the  emblems  (MacG. 
36);  Usekh  of  Mut,  with  the  vulture  with  curved  wings 
(LACAU,  436). 

Meaning.  Dress  of  the  living,  in  contrast  to  the  dead. 
The  Chapter  158  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  is  as  follows : 
"  The  chapter  of  the  collar  of  gold,  put  on  the  neck  of 
the  deceased.  0  my  father !  my  brother !  my  mother 
Isis!  I  am  unveiled  and  I  am  seen.  I  am  one  of  the 
unveiled  ones,  who  see  Geb." 


20 


AMULETS     OF    PROPERTY 


Varieties.  A,  plain  rows  of  beads  "of  the  lord  of  Eternity," 
Osiris  (MacG.  82).  B,  with  hawk  heads  (MacG.  2). 
C,  deep  and  short  rows  (Fig.  70b).  D,  with  hawk 
(MacG.  88).  E,  with  vulture  of  Mut  (LACAU,  486). 
F,  with  vulture  and  uraeus  (MacG.  86). 

Period.    XXVI  to  Koman. 

Figures.  71a,  type  B,  green  and  black  glaze,  Dondereh, 
Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  71b,  type  C,  blue  and  black  glaze, 
group  21 ;  71  c,  wax  gilt,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  20. 

Material.  Gold  inlaid  2,  Gold  foil  2,  Blue  glaze  8,  Ked 
jasper  2. 

Position.     Neck  and  upper  chest. 

Collections.  Cairo,  Horuza  2,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  Murch  2, 
Alnwick  1. 

72.    CLOTHING. 

Name.     Monkhet  (LACAU,  442) ;  oper. 

Meaning.     Clothing. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  72a,  b,  black  and  white  porphyry ;  72c,  c  2, 
diorite  ;  72d,  white  glass. 

Materials.  Diorite  14,  Serpentine  2,  Granite  2,  Porphyry 
8,  Red  glass  1,  White  glass  1,  "  Grey  stone"  1,  Wood  1. 

Position.     Chest  (8). 

Collections.  Cairo  16,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  E.  1,  St.  Peters- 
burg 1,  Turin  1,  Alnwick  1. 


73.    ROYAL  HEAD-DRESS. 

Name.  Seden  (XXV  stele),  or  Nems  (LACAU,  487  ;  MacG. 
4),  or  Khat  (LACAU,  489). 

Meaning.    Royal  clothing. 

Figure.    Not  here. 

Material.    Carnelian. 

Collection.    Cairo. 

Another  head-dress  was  Ondet  (MacG.  8). 

The  beard  was  Khebsat  (MacG.  20).  Neither  of  these  are 
found  as  amulets. 

74.    COMB. 

Name.     (?). 

Meaning.  Hair  dressing.  Actual  combs  are  common  in 
prehistoric  and  XVIII. 

Period.     Roman. 

Figures.  74a,  b,  bone,  Tell  el  Amarna,  Roman ;  74c,  d, 
e,  bone. 

Material.     All  of  bone. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5  (group  24). 

75.    SPEAR  HEAD. 

Name.    (?). 
Meaning.    Defence. 
Period.     Prehistoric. 


Figure.    Naqada,  Iviii. 
Material.    Green  serpentine. 

76.    WRITING  TABLET. 

Name.  Themes,  or  Kher-o,  "  under  the  arm."  Medum, 
xiii ;  Saqq.  Mast.,  ii. 

Meaning.  Provision  for  writing.  The  writing  materials 
were  prayed  for  in  the  94th  chapter  of  the  Book  of  the 
Dead. 

Period.    XXVI  and  later. 

Figures.  76a,  green  diorite ;  76b,  blue  glass,  with  incised 
figure  of  Tahuti. 

Materials.  Green  felspar  8,  Beryl  8,  "  Black-grey  stone  " 
4,  Lazuli  8,  Obsidian  1,  Green  glaze  1,  Green  jasper  1,  Green 
glass  1,  Haematite  1,  Diorite  1,  Blue  glass  1. 

Position.     Throat  (1) ;  chest  (6) ;  stomach  (1). 

Collections.     Cairo  23,  Price  8,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  Alnwick 

1,  Edinburgh  1.     Some  of  these  may  have  been  No.  20, 
with  the  papyrus  drawn  but  not  engraved. 

77.    NAME  BADGE. 

Name.  Serekh,  "  that  which  makes  known  "  (MacG.  51). 
Se-at  or  Seurat  (LACAU,  444 — 5). 

Meaning.  To  preserve  the  name.  The  25th  chapter 
of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  is,  "  Whereby  a  person  remembereth 
his  name  in  the  underworld."  Even  the  gods  might  lose 
their  names,  for  of  the  fiery  region  of  the  12th  domain  we 
read  :  "  No  god  goes  down  into  it  ...  for  the  four  snakes 
would  destroy  their  names  "  (B.  of  D.,  149). 

Varieties.     A,  long  bead.     B,  flatted  prism. 

Period.    A,  XII.    B,  XIX. 

Figures.  77a,  carnelian,  as  worn  on  neck,  see  Khnuniu- 
hotep  (Gizeh  and  Rifeh,  xi) ;  77b,  amethyst  with  name  of 
King  Senusert ;  77c,  carnelian  with  name  of  Bakmut ;  77d, 
silver,  Vlth  dynasty,  group  13  ;  77e,  gold,  Qurneh.  See 
3  of  carnelian  of  Hapi,  Pasar  and  Khaeruuas  (MAIUETTE, 
Serapeum,  iii,  xi). 

Materials.  Carnelian  5,  Amethyst  1,  Gold  1  (and  LACAU, 
449),  Green  felspar  (LACAU,  453—5),  Silver  1. 

Position.     On  neck  (Gizcli  and  Rifeh,  xi). 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  Cairo  type  A  2,  type  B  8. 

78.    CARTOUCHE. 

Name.     Han. 

Meaning.  To  preserve  the  name ;  later  substitute  for 
previous  name  badge,  No  77. 

Varieties.     A,  plain.     B,  with  feathers  on  top. 

Period.    XXVI. 

figures.     78a,  diorite  ;  78a  2,  lazuli ;  78b,  basalt. 

Materials.  Lazuli  10,  Green  glaze  1,  "  White  stone  "  1, 
"Black  stone,"  Cairo,  1,  Yellow  limestone  1,  Diorite  1, 
Basalt  1. 

Position.     Neck  ;  top  of  chest ;  top  of  stomach. 

Collections.     Cairo  10,  Brit.  Mus.  5,  B  4,  Univ.  Coll.  P. 

2,  E.  1,  Alnwick  1,  Edinburgh  1. 


21 


AMULETS     OF    PROPERTY 


79.    SEAL. 

Meaning.    Power  over  property. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Fie/urea.  79a,  white  limestone  ;  791),  brown  limestone  ; 
79b  2,  green  felspar ;  79b  8,  4,  lazuli ;  79b  5,  basalt ; 
79c  (pi.  xliv),  blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21. 

Materials.  Lazuli  17,  Green  felspar  9,  Green  glaze  7, 
Basalt  7,  Blue  glaze  4,  Limestone  4,  Slate  2,  Quartz  2,  Prase 
1,  Agate  1. 

Position.  Eight  hand  5  ;  left  hand  5  (on  2nd  finger, 
between  2nd  and  3rd  finger) ;  low  on  stomach. 

Collections.  Cairo  18,  St.  Petersburg  12,  Univ.  Coll.,  P. 
8,  E.  8,  Alnwick  5. 

80.    SEAL   RING. 

Name.    Zebot. 

Meaning.     Power  over  property. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.     80,  Lazuli. 

Materials.  Gold  1,  Lazuli  2,  Green  glaze  1  (Hor-uza, 
Hawara). 

Position.  Between  2nd  and  3rd,  between  3rd  and  4th 
fingers  right  hand ;  on  3rd  finger  of  left  hand ;  in  left 
hand;  chest. 

Collections.     Cairo,  Horuza  2,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

81.    CIRCLE   OF   CORD. 

Name.     Shen,  explained  as  Onkh-shau  (LACAU,  112). 
Meaning.    "  Benefits  of  life,"  as  alien  means  "  fulness, 


completion,"  this  implies  the  fulness  of  the  gains  and 
rewards  of  life. 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  81,  broken  away  at  sides  of  base,  same  both 
sides,  light  green  glaze. 

Materials.  Basalt  5,  Steatite  2,  Lazuli  2,  Green  felspar 
2,  Quartz  1,  Limestone  1,  Green  glaze  1. 

Position.    Top  row,  by  cartouche. 

Collections.  St  Petersburg  7,  Alnwick  8,  Univ.  Coll.  P. 
1,  E.  1,  Price  1. 


82.    SLAVE  FIGURE. 

Name.     Ushabti. 

Meaning.    To  work  for  the  deceased  in  the  future  life. 

Varieties.  Too  extensive  to  state  here.  A  breast-piece 
of  pendant  ushabtis  occurs  in  the  XlXth  dynasty. 

Penod.  XVIII  to  XXX.  (The  stone  figures  of  the  Xllth 
dynasty  are  really  figures  of  the  dead.) 

Figures.  82,  One  example  of  the  XXIInd  dynasty  marks 
the  place  of  this  subject  as  an  amulet ;  this  ushabti  is  of 
Zed-tehuti-as-onkh. 

Materials.  Bronze,  all  available  stones,  all  colours  of 
Glaze,  Pottery,  Wood. 

Position.  A  boxful  of  200  was  placed  on  each  side  of  the 
mummy. 

Collections.  All.  This  subject  is  as  extensive  as  all  other 
amulets  together. 


CHAPTER  VI 
AMULETS  FOR  PROTECTION 

PHYLACTIC  AMULETS,  83 — 137. 


IN  this  class  the  amulets  or  charms  for  protection  are 
what  are  more  popularly  regarded  as  amulets.  The  pur- 
pose of  these  is  to  call  into  account  some  external  agency 
which  is  not  as  definite  as  a  divinity.  The  most  primitive 
means  are  preferred,  such  as  wearing  shells,  bones,  animals, 
cords,  stones,  etc.  Doubtless  a  great  number  of  vegetable 
and  animal  objects  were  also  included  in  this  class,  though 
the  great  majority  of  such  have  naturally  disappeared  in 
the  course  of  ages.  The  great  popularity  and  literary 
importance  of  the  inscribed  charms,  especially  inscribed 
gem  stones,  has  fixed  more  attention  on  this  kind  of  amulet, 
almost  to  the  exclusion  of  the  various  other  classes. 

83.    SUN   AND  WINGS. 

Meaning.     Ra  as  protector. 

Varieties.  Seldom  on  the  mummy,  but  usual  over  figures 
and  entrances  to  temples. 


Period.    Ptolemaic,  as  an  amulet. 

Figures.    83a,  black  steatite;  83b,  gilt  wax,  Dendereh, 
group  20. 

Materials.    Black  steatite  1,  Gilt  wax  1. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 


84.    SUN  AND   URAEI. 

Meaning.     Ra  as  ruler. 

Varieties.     Seldom  on  the  mummy,  but  used  as  previous. 
Period.    Ptolemaic,  as  an  amulet. 

Figures.     84a,  wood  with  traces  of  stucco  and  gilding ; 
84b,  green  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 . 
Materials.     Green  glaze  1,  Wood  1. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 


AMULETS     FOR    PROTECTION 


85.    CRESCENT. 

Name.    Aoh. 

Meaning.  The  protection  of  the  moon  god.  Against  evil 
eye  and  witchery  (BELL.,  xv,  26 ;  xvi,  25).  The  emblem  of 
patricians  at  Rome  (BoNi,  Nuov.  Antol.,  1  Oct.,  1912). 

Varieties.    A,  alone.     B,  with  disc.    C,  with  cross. 

Period.  XVIII  to  Roman.  Specially  worn  in  early  part 
of  2nd  cent.  A.D.  (Roman  Portraits,  12,  14). 

Figures.  85a,  b,  pale  blue  glass,  XVIII ;  85c,  black 
glaze,  XII  or  XVIII ;  85d,  e,  silver,  Memphis,  Roman, 
group  27 ;  85f,  gold,  Memphis,  group  27  ;  85g,  silver ;  85h, 
base  silver;  8Sj,j2,  white  glass  on  blue,  with  red  spots 
around,  Gurob,  Roman.  Type  B,  85k,  electrum,  XII 
dynasty  (?)  ;  831,  blue  glaze,  XVIII ;  83m,  black  and  yellow 
serpentine,  Roman  ;  83n,  bronze,  Shurafeh,  Coptic  period. 
See  also  plain  bronze  crescent,  Roman  age,  Saft,  in 
HyksoB  and  Israelite  Cities,  xxxvii  a. 

Materials.  Gold  1,  Electrum  1,  Silver  4,  Bronze  2, 
Glass  5,  Blue  glaze  1,  Black  glaze  1. 

Position.     Necklace. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  8. 

86.    MUMMY. 

Name.     Sah   (MacG.  64).     Sokar  khent  opcr,  "  Sokar  in 
clothing"  (LANZ.,  Diz.,  Mit.,  xvii). 

Meaning.    Preservation  of  the  body  in  mummy  form  (?). 
Period.    Graeco-Roman. 
Figures.    86a,  b,  dark  blue  glass. 
Materials.    Green  glaze  2,  Blue  glass  2. 
Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  Turin  2. 

87.    MUMMY   ON   BIER. 

Name.     ? 

Meaning.    Preservation  of  the  body  (?). 

Varieties.     A,  alone.    B,  with  Anpu. 

Period.    Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  87a,  green  glaze ;  87b,  glass,  burnt.  Type  B, 
87c,  blue  glaze  with  black  paint,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic, 
group  21. 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  4,  B  1,  Green  glaze  1,  Red  glass 
B  1,  Glass  (burnt)  1,  Painted  pottery  1. 

Position.    Chest  (2)  ;  stomach  (2) ;  knees  (1). 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Athens  2,  Edinburgh  2. 

88.    GIRDLE   OF   ISIS. 

Name.     Thct. 

Meaning.  Protection  by  the  blood  of  Isis.  Also  the 
girdle  of  Nut  (LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  cli).  This  is  the  primitive 
women's  girdle,  fuller  than  the  onkh,  the  men's  girdle. 
The  156th  chapter  of  theBook  of  the  Dead  reads:  "  Chapter 
of  the  tie  of  red  jasper  which  is  put  on  the  neck  of  the 
deceased.  The  blood  of  Isis,  the  virtue  of  Isis  ;  the  magic 
power  of  Isis,  the  magic  power  of  the  Eye,  are  protecting 


this  great  one  ;  they  prevent  any  wrong  being  done  to  him 
This  chapter  is  said  on  a  tie  of  red  jasper,  dipped  in  the 
juice  of  ankhamn,  inlaid  into  the  substance  of  the  sycomore 
wood,  and  put  on  the  neck  of  the  deceased.  Whoever  has 
this  chapter  read  to  him,  the  virtue  of  Isis  protects  him ; 
Horus  the  son  of  Isis  rejoices  in  seeing  him,  and  no  way 
is  barred  to  him,  unfailingly." 

Varieties.    A,  alone.   B,  double.  C,  double  with  zad  sign. 
Period.     XIX  to  Roman. 

Figures.  88a,  red  glass ;  88b,  green  glass ;  88c,  green 
glaze  ;  88c  2, blue  glaze  ;  88d,  e,  e2,  8,  green  glaze,  group  28, 
XXV  dynasty  (?);  88f,  faded  green  glaze;  88g,  dark  blue  glaze, 
XVIII  or XIX ;  88h,  h 2,  j,  j  2,  j  3,  red  glass ;  88j  4,  redlime- 
stone  ;  88j  5,  slate ;  88k,  pewter,  possibly  a  clothing  sign  72  ; 
881,  wax,  gilt,  Dendereh,  group  20.  See  pi.  xlvii,  88m, 
carnelian  of  the  royal  scribe  Paari ;  88n,  jasper,  of  the  chief 
archer  Nekht-a-min;  880,  jasper  of  Roi;  88p,  blue  and 
black  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  26.  Type  B, 
double,  red  glaze,  XVIII  (Ed).  Also  see  2  carnelian  of 
Khaemuas  and  1  of  Hapi  (MARIETTE,  Scrapeum,  iii,  xi,  xx). 

Materials.  Red  jasper  21,  Carnelian  3,  Red  glass  18, 
Brown  jasper  13,  Blue  glaze  27,  Green  glaze  18,  Red 
glaze  1,  Lazuli  2,  Obsidian  1,  Gold  1,  Silver  1,  Pewter  plate 
1,  Brown  paste  1,  Green  glass  1,  Wax  gilt  1. 

Position.  Neck  (2) ;  chest  usual  (11) ;  stomach  (2) ; 
toes  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  47,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  16,  E.  7,  Turin  12, 
Price  12,  Almvick  11,  St.  Petersburg  7,  Edinburgh  1, 
Murch  1. 

89.    SCARAB,   FLAT   BASE. 


Name.     Khepcr. 

Meaning.     Heart  of  Isis  given  to  the  deceased. 


See  Nos. 
7  and  90  for  the  Book  of  the  Dead. 

Period.    XVIII  to  XXX. 

Figures.  89a,  grey  steatite,  Ramesseum ;  89b,  lazuli, 
formerly  set  on  a  pectoral ;  89c,  lazuli  veneer  on  slate  base, 
Ramesseum  ;  89d,  basalt,  Ramesseum ;  89d  2,  volcanic  ash  ; 
89e,  limestone,  Ramesseum ;  89f ,  malachite ;  89g,  slate  ; 
89g  2,  slate;  89g  3,  steatite;  89h,  peridot;  89j,  k,  indigo 
glaze,  XXII  dynasty ;  891,  blue-green  glaze ;  891 2,  red  glass  ; 
89m,  blue  paste,  Saqqareh,  pierced  for  stitching  on  mummy 
wrapping  or  network,  as  also  the  next;  89n,  deep  blue 
paste  ;  89o,  red  glass  ;  89p,  violet  glass ;  89q,  violet  glass  ; 
89r,  s,  deep  blue  clear  glass  ;  89t,  same,  burnt ;  89u,  deep 
blue  clear  glass  ;  89uu  (pi.  xliv),  same  ;  89v,  yellow  glass  ; 
89w,  x,  amber ;  89x,  2,  3,  durite ;  89y,  green  glaze  with 
yellow  points,  Roman. 

Materials  (apart  from  Cairo  catalogue  which  is,  uncer- 
tain). Basalt  17,  Serpentine  15,  Steatite  8,  Green/jasper  6, 
Porphyry  4,  Green  quartz  4,  Schist  1,  Blue  glazre  5,  Blue 
glass  4,  Green  glaze  4,  Lazuli  3,  Violet  glass  2,  Blue  paste  2, 
Amber  2,  Durite  1,  Green  felspar  1,  Limestone  I,  Malachite 
1,  Peridot  1,  Red  glass  1,  Yellow  giass  1. 
Position. 


AMULETS     FOR    PROTECTION 


Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  27,  E.  5,  Alnwick  28,  St. 
Petersburg  66,  Price  10. 

90.    SCARAB,   INSCRIBED   BASE. 

Name.     Kheper. 

Meaning.  Heart  of  Isis  given  to  the  deceased.  The  80th 
chapter  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  appears  in  a  slightly 
different  form  (version  B)  upon  the  heart  scarab,  reading : 
"My  heart  of  my  Mother,  my  heart  of  my  Mother,  my 
heart  of  my  becoming  (in  future  life).  May  nothing  rise 
up  against  me  in  evidence  ;  may  no  hindrance  be  made 
against  me  by  the  divine  chiefs  ;  may  there  be  no  enemy 
of  thee  against  me  in  the  presence  of  the  Guardian  of  the 
Balance.  Thou  art  my  ka  in  my  body,  the  creator  making 
sound  my  limbs.  Come  forth  to  the  bliss  towards  which 
we  are  bound.  May  our  name  not  be  in  bad  odour  with  the 
Ministrants,  those  who  deal  to  men  their  course  in  life ;  and 
be  there  good  for  us,  be  there  good  to  the  hearer,  be  there 
joy  of  heart,  by  the  Weighing  of  words.  May  not  lies  be 
uttered  in  the  presence  oE  the  God,  before  the  great  God  lord 
of  Amenti.  Behold  thy  uplifting  is  in  the  acquittal." 

Varieties.  A,  various  forms  of  this  chapter  are  used, 
sometimes  only  omitting  half  a  dozen  words,  as  on  901, 
sometimes  leaving  only  the  opening  invocation  to  the  heart, 
as  on  90c.  B,  a  suten  du  hotep  formula  is  rarely  used,  as  in 
90u,  v,  aa. 

Period.     XVIIIth  to  XXIIIrd  dynasties. 

Figures.  The  backs  on  pi.  viii,  the  inscriptions  on  pi.  ix ; 
90a,  black  steatite,  name  Huy ;  90b,  brown  limestone,  of 
Huria  ;  90e,  glazed  steatite,  of  Set-mesa  ;  90d,  black  steatite, 
of  Tuaa  ;  90e,  black  steatite,  of  Ma-nehes,  "  the  alert  lion  "  ; 
90f,  hard  light  brown  limestone  in  silver  mount,  of  Min-em- 
hat ;  90g,  a  metamorphic  mud,  similar  in  material  to  slate, 
usually  mis-called  "  green  basalt,"  here  called  durite,  of 
Tet-bet,  "nursing  shepherd "  (?) ;  90h,  durite,  of  Dudut; 
90j,  durite,  of  Repen(?);  90k,  jade,  called  by  the  Egyptians 
nenmehen,  as  stated  on  the  Kennard  tablet  (now  in  Berlin), 
of  the  singer,  Thentamen ;  901,  durite  (volcanic  ash)  of 
Pamoy  (secondary  use)  ;  90m,  durite  of  Anefer ;  90n,  durite, 
of  Tetames  ;  90o,  green  glaze  in  copper  mount,  of  the  scribe 
Nashuy  ;  90p,  durite,  of  Amen-mes  ;  90q,  limestone  stained 
brown-black  (XVIIIth  dynasty,  as  kohl  pots)  of  the  over- 
seer of  the  serfs  of  Min,  Kanure,  from  Ekhmim ;  90r,  durite, 
of  the  singer  of  Amen,  Shab-mer-ast ;  90s,  durite  of  Zed- 
ptah-a-onkh;  90t,  jade,  name  lost;  90u,  black  steatite  of 
Hor-se-ast ;  90v,  blue  paste,  very  illegibly  cut,  apparently 
of  Peh-ne-kha-user ;  90w  (pi.  xlvi)  lazuli,  of  the  keeper 
of  the  cattle  Tahutimes,  XVIIIth  dynasty.  The  following 
not  in  plates : — 90x,  violet  glass  plate,  with  hollow 
crystal  back  in  which  is  painted  the  heron,  backed  with 
gold  foil,  for  Auf-neren-neheh,  Gurob,  XVIIIth  dynasty ; 
90y,  limestone,  coloured  brown,  of  the  singer  of  Isis, 
Hatsheps,  XVIIIth  dynasty  ;  90z,  limestone,  of  Huy  ; 
90aa,  lazuli,  nesut  du  hotep  formula  without  a  name, 
group  81. 


Materials  (omitting  Cairo  as  uncertain  ;  the  other  collec- 
tions as  stated,  but  probably  in  error  on  basalt).  Basalt  (?) 
18,  Durite  9,  Porphyry  (?)  6,  Limestone  5,  Steatite  5, 
Serpentine  5,  Green  jasper  (?)  4,  Schist  4,  Jade  2,  Lazuli  2, 
Green  felspar  1,  Glazed  steatite  1,  Green  glaze  1,  Blue 
glaze  1,  Blue  paste  1,  Violet  glass  1. 

Position.     On  the  chest  (?). 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  26,  Alnwick  17,  Price  5. 

91.    PECTORAL. 

Name.     Unknown. 

Meaning.     Heart  of  Isis. 

Varieties.  A,  in  one  piece.  B,  with  separate  scarab 
(see  MacG.  68,  69,  70). 

Period.    XVIII  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  91a,  durite,  filled  in  with  yellowpaste;  upper  side, 
scarab  with  akhet  bird  on  back,  Isis  and  Nebhat  standing  on  a 
boat  adoring  it;  under  side,  the  scarab  outline  with  the 
invocations  of  the  beginning  of  the  chapter,  and  figure  of 
Unnefer  adoring  Osiris ;  91b,  black  steatite,  Isis  and 
Nebhat,  winged,  adoring,  but  the  middle  blank,  probably  a 
scarab  has  been  attached ;  back,  Osiris  "  lord  of  eternity, 
lord  of  Ta-zeser,"  adored  by  the  deceased  and  Isis  ;  on  the 
top  edge  the  name  "  Set-ha-em-tepy  "  ;  91c,  gold,  a  woman 
Nefert-her  adoring  "  Isis  the  great  mother  "  ;  91d,  electrum, 
figure  of  Tahuti,  with  altar  of  offerings.  "  The  speech  of 
Tahuti,  lord  of  Khemenu,  give  life,  health,  and  strength  to. 
the  son  of  the  high  priest  of  Amen,  Uasakauasa, 
acquitted,  son  of  the  high  priest  of  Amen,  Fu-ua-merth, 
acquitted  "  ;  91e,  green  glaze,  zad  between  two  thet  girdles, 
back,  jackal  couchant  on  shrine,  with  right  mat  eye  above ; 
91f,  blue-green  glaze,  jackal  couchant  on  shrine  "  Anpu  in 
his  bandages  lord  of  the  desert  "  ;  91g,  shrine  of  black  and 
yellow  serpentine,  apparently  an  inserted  figure  has  been 
lost.  See  green-glazed  pectoral  of  Pasar  (MARIETTE, 
Serapeum,  iii,  xii). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  13,  Blue  glaze  3,  Glazed  stone  8, 
Slate  6,  Durite  1,  Wood  8,  Schist  2,  Blue  frit  2,  Steatite  1, 
Serpentine  1,  Red-brown  glaze  1,  Gold  1,  Electrum  1. 

Position.     On  breast  (2) ;  on  stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  35,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  7,  St.  Petersburg  6, 
Price  2,  Edinburgh  1,  Alnwick  1. 

92.    SCARAB  WITH   LEGS. 

Name.     Kheper  (MacG.  61). 

Meaning.  Protection  against  quartan  fever  (PLINY,  xxx, 
30).  Snake  bite  (Africa).  Agate  scarab  against  evil  eye 
(BELL.,  xiii,  27).  Horns  of  scarab  for  children  (PLINY, 
xxx,  47). 

Varieties.  Actual  beetles  were  buried  in  jars  in  pre- 
historic graves.  An  alabaster  case  in  the  form  of  a  scarab, 
to  hang  round  the  neck,  hollow  as  a  reliquary,  of  1st  dynasty, 
Cairo  (Tarkhan,  xiv).  A,  with  legs,  natural  head.  B,  hawk- 
headed.  C,  with  four  rams'  heads  (LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  490).  D, 
human  headed  (L.,  Diz.  Mit.,  ccl). 


24 


AMULETS     FOR     PROTECTION 


Period.     1st  to  XXXth  dynasties. 

Figures.  92a,  obsidian,  of  exquisitely  detailed  work 
(the  wing  cases  being  also  delicately  ribbed),  and  prob- 
ably of  the  Xllth  dynasty,  when  obsidian  was  a  favourite 
material  for  the  best  inscribed  scarabs ;  92b,  diorite  ;  b  2,  8, 
4,  Hawara,  porphyry,  hard  steatite,  brown  limestone, 
XXVI ;  92c,  green  glaze ;  92d,  greenish-blue  glaze ; 
92d  2,  3,  white  limestone  ;  d  4,  steatite  ;  d  5,  haematite  ; 
d  6,  7,  green  glaze ;  92e,  f,  f  2  f  8,  green  glaze  faded,  Hawara, 
XXVI  ;  92e  2,  brown  basalt ;  92g  (pi.  xliv),  green  glaze, 
Dendereh,  Ptolemaic  ;  92h  (pi.  xlvi),  green  glaze  ;  92 j,  blue 
and  black  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  26  (pi.  xxxii). 

Materials.  Basalt  (durite  ?)  22,  Porphyry  14,  Lazuli  13, 
Green  glaze  84,  Blue  glaze  8,  Serpentine  8,  Haematito  6, 
Carnelian  6,  Brown  steatite  7,  Limestone  4,  Prase  3,  Black 
syenite  4,  Green  syenite  2,  Green  glass  3,  Green  felspar  2, 
Beryl  2,  Obsidian  2,  White  glass  1,  Bronze  1,  Diorite  1. 

Position.  Throat  (4)  ;  chest  (28)  ;  stomach  (5)  ;  left 
hand  (2). 

Collection*.  St.  Petersburg  65,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  85,  E.  15, 
Price  22. 

93.    SCARAB   WINGED. 

Meaning.     Protective  power  of  the  Creator  (?). 

Varieties.  A,  winged.  B,  winged,  on  legs  walking 
Dendereh  15,  pi.  li).  C,  winged  in  boat. 

Period.    XXII  to  XXX. 

Figures.  93a,  flame-coloured  sard, X VIII (?);  93b,  pewter, 
group  18 ;  93c,  bronze  with  human  head,  crowned  with 
disc,  horns,  and  uraeus ;  93d,  blue  paste,  with  holes  for 
stitching  on  to  a  mummy  network  ;  93e,  f,  blue  glaze,  with 
four  genii,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  93g,  green  glaze 
with  violet  inlay  in  the  hawk  heads,  and  four  genii.  For 
other  figures  of  the  genii  see  182.  Type  C,  93h,  blue  glaze 
(xlvii). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  3,  Sard  1,  Blue  paste  1,  Pewter  1, 
Gold  1,  Blue  glass  2,  Black  glaze  1. 

Position.     Collar-bone  (3) ;  breast  (3) ;  stomach  (1). 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  8,  Athens  3,  St.  Petersburg  1. 

94.    VULTURE   STANDING. 

Namra.  Nert,  Demzedet,  Ament,  Themt,  Urtheka,  Sebkhet 
Kherert  (MacG.  12,  13,  14,  15,  29,  45,  47,  66). 

Meaning.  Five  different  vultures  confer  Being,  Divinity, 
Living  with  gods,  Going  among  men,  and  Youth  (LACAU, 
99). 

Period.    VI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  94a,  bone,  VI,  group  5  ;  94a  2,  carnelian, 
group  7  ;  94a  3,  4,  blue  glaze,  rude,  VI,  Zaraby ;  94b, 
bone,  group  6 ;  94c,  bone,  group  8 ;  95d,  gold.  (See 
MARIETTB,  Serapeum,  iii,  xi ;  Naqada,  Iviii,  Xllth  dynasty.) 

Materials.  Lazuli  4,  Gold  2,  Blue  glaze  3,  Bone  8, 
Carnelian  1,  Syenite  1,  Yellow  glaze  1,  Red  glaze  1. 

Position.    Neck  (2) ;  base  of  chest  (8), 


Collections.  Univ.  Coll-  P.  7,  Turin  8,  Murch  2,  Cairo  2 
(Horuza),  St.  Petersburg  1,  Alnwick  1. 

95.  VULTURE  WITH  WINGS  SPREAD. 

Name.  Nert-hent-pet-er-remtu  (?),  "  The  Vulture  mistress 
of  heaven  over  mankind."  Nert-her-ne-pot,  "  The  Vulture 
who  is  over  men  "  (MacG.  84,  48). 

Meaning.  Protection.  The  157th  chapter  of  the  Book 
of  the  Dead  is  as  follows :  "  Chapter  of  the  vulture  of  gold, 
put  on  the  neck  of  the  deceased.  Isis  has  arrived;  she 
hovers  over  the  dwellings,  and  she  searches  all  the  hidden 
abodes  of  Horus  when  he  comes  out  of  the  northern  marshes 
knocking  down  him  whose  face  is  evil.  She  causes  him 
(the  deceased)  to  join  the  bark  (of  the  sun),  and  grants  him 
the  sovreinty  over  the  worlds.  When  he  has  fought  a  great 
fight,  He  (Horus)  decrees  what  must  be  done  in  his  honour  ; 
He  causes  fear  of  him  to  arise,  and  He  creates  terror.  His 
mother,  the  Great  One,  uses  her  protective  power,  which  she 
has  handed  over  to  Horus.  Said  on  the  vulture  of  gold. 
If  this  chapter  is  written  on  it,  it  protects  the  deceased,  the 
powerful  one,  on  the  day  of  the  funeral,  and  undeviatingly  for 
times  infinite." 

Varieties.  A,  vulture  head.  B,  ram  head.  C,  curved 
wings. 

Period.     VI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  93a,  gold ;  93b,  gold  ;  9Sc,  pewter,  group  18 ; 
95d,  bronze.  See  type  B,  gold  inlaid,  in  MARIETTE,  Sera- 
peum, iii,  xii ;  also  C,  gold  inlaid,  in  MAR.,  Ser.,  iii,  xx. 

Materials.     Gold  4,  Pewter  1,  Bronze  1. 

Position.     Neck  1 ;  chest  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Cairo,  Horuza  1,  St.  Peters- 
burg 1. 

96.    SERPENT  (Not  URAEUS,  5f). 

Name.     Zet  (MacG.  5). 

Meaning.  Preservation  from  serpents  (?).  Teeth  for 
dentition  (PLINY,  xxx,  47). 

Varieties.  A,  long.  B,  in  tube.  C,  wavy.  D,  coiled. 
(screw).  E,  spiral  (volute). 

Period.     Prehistoric  to  XXVI  (?). 

Figures.  A,  96a,  dark  wood,  serpent  of  Mertseger  (LANZ., 
Diz.  Mit.,  cxxvii) ;  96  b,  Hint,  from  Koptos,  1st  dynasty  (?). 
B,  96c,  red  glass.  C,  two  early  dynastic  house  amulets  in 
pottery.  D,  96d,  yellow-brown  limestone,  prehistoric, 
apparently  to  be  placed  round  a  finger  or  staff,  two  and  a 
half  turns.  E,  96e,  lazuli,  prehistoric ;  96f  (pi.  xlvii), 
limestone,  prehistoric,  large  amulet  to  hang  in  house, 

acale  2  :  5. 

Materials.  Pottery  2,  Lazuli  1,  Flint  1,  Yellow  lime- 
stone 1,  Limestone  1,  Rod  glass  1,  Wood  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  7. 

97.  SERPENT  HEAD,  OR  FOREPART. 

Name.    Menqanjt,  Menqabet  (LACAU,  82 ;  MacG.  1). 
Meaning.    To  avoid  snake  bite.    Chapter  83  of  the  Book 


25 


AMULETS     FOR    PROTECTION 


of  the  Dead  reads  :  "  Chapter  whereby  all  serpents  are  kept 
back  " ;  Chapter  84 :  "  Chapter  whereby  a  person  is  not 
devoured  by  the  dweller  in  the  shrine " ;  Chapter  85 : 
"  Chapter  whereby  the  person  is  not  devoured  by  a  serpent 
in  the  underworld."  There  is  nothing  in  these  chapters  to 
explain  the  amulets  further. 

Varieties.     A,  half  length.  B,  head  only. 

Period.    Prehistoric  to  XXVI. 

Figures.  97a,  red  glass,  of  "  the  lady  of  the  house  Nefer- 
renpit" ;  97b,  carnelian,of "  the  royal  scribe  Ptah-mes, keeper 
of  the  horses  "  ;  97c,  d,  carnelian  ;  97e,  sard ;  97e  2,  yellow 
jasper;  97f,  f  2,  green  glaze ;  97g,  carnelian ;  97h,  haematite ; 
97j,  red  limestone,  prehistoric.  Also  see  2  carnelian  of 
Hapi  (MAEIETTE,  Serapeum,  iii,  xi). 

Materials.  Carnelian  50,  Haematite  1,  Red  limestone  1, 
Ivory  3,  Blue  glass  2,  Bed  jasper  1,  Green  glaze  5,  Green 
glass  1,  Brown  glass  1,  Gold  1,  Agate  1,  Yellow  jasper  1. 

Position.     Throat  (2);  base  of  neck  (1);  base  of  chest  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  A  28,  B  14,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  9,  E.  3, 
St.  Petersburg  B  3,  Murch  3,  Alnwick  2,  Turin  1. 

98.    COBRA   ON   CASE. 

Name.     Unknown. 

Meaning.  Snake's  skin  eases  delivery  (PLINY,  xxx,  44). 
For  malaria  (BELL.,  xiii,  20). 

Varieties.     A,  reared  up.  B,  lying  twisted  on  case. 

Period.  This  class  of  reptiles  on  cases  is  shown  by  the 
inscribed  names  to  be  as  early  as  the  XXVth  dynasty  ;  and 
being  mentioned  by  Pliny  it  probably  extended  to  Ptolemaic 
times. 

Fif/itres.  Type  A,  98a,  bronze  ;  98b,  bronze,  cornice  to 
box ;  98c,  bronze,  upper  part  of  hood  broken  away, 
inscribed  "  Atmu  give  life  to  Un-nefer,  son  of  Khonsu- 
ardus,  .  .  .  life  to  Hapy,  son  of  Shab-pa-hor "  ;  right 
uzat  eye  on  front.  (This  is  classed  by  Daressy  as  a  figure 
of  Atmu,  by  the  inscription  (Cairo  Cat.  38,704),  but  as 
Atmu  never  appears  elsewhere  as  a  serpent,  the  god  is 
probably  only  invoked  for  the  fever.)  Type  B,  98d,d  2,  d8, 
bronze ;  98e,  bronze.  For  shape  of  head  see  Descrip. 
Eg.  Beptilia,  Supplem.  3. 

Material.     Bronze. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.   P.  6,  E.  2,  St.  Petersburg  1. 

99.  AMPHISBAENA   ON   CASE. 

Meaning.     Worn  alive   for   pregnancy  (PLINY,  xxx,  43). 
Worn  dead  for  rheumatism  (P.  xxx,  36). 
Period.     XXV  to  Ptolemaic. 
Figures.     99a,  b,  bronze. 
Material.     Bronze. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  St.  Petersburg  2. 

100.  PHAGRUS  EEL  ON  CASE. 

Meaning.  Tooth  of  phagrus  worn  for  malaria  (PLINY, 
xxxii,  33). 


Period.    XXV  to  Ptolemaic  (?). 
Figure.    lOOa,  b,  c,  bronze. 
Material.     Bronze. 

Collection.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  E.  2.  See  WILKINSON, 
M.  and  C.,  iii,  842. 

101.    LIZARD  ON  CASE. 

Meaning.  Spotted  lizard  worn  in  case  for  quartan  fever. 
(PLINY,  xxx,  30).  Green  lizard  in  case  for  tertian  fever 
(PLINY,  xxx,  30). 

Varieties.  A,  lizard.  B,  two  lizards.  C,  lizard  and 
cobra. 

Period.    XXV  to  Ptolemaic  (?). 

Figures.  These  vary  somewhat,  but  different  types  of 
Gecko  are  not  distinguishable.  Type  A,  lOla,  b,  c,  bronze ; 
lOla  2,  b  2,  bronze.  B,  101,  bronze.  C,  lOld,  bronze. 

Material.     Bronze. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3,  E.  4. 

102.    TAURT  ON   CASE. 

Meaning.  For  pregnancy,  as  amphisbaena  in  PLINY, 
xxx,  48. 

Period.     XXV  to  Ptolemaic  (?). 
Figure.     102. 
Material.     Bronze. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

103.    SHREW   MOUSE   ON   CASE. 

Meaning.  Dead  shrew  mouse  passed  round  boils  (PLINY, 
xxx,  34). 

Period.     XXV  to  Ptolemaic  (?). 

Figure.     103. 

Material.     Bronze. 

Collections.     St.  Petersburg  2,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

104.  HORN. 

Name.     Ob. 

Meaning.    For  evil  eye  (BELL.,  xii,  12). 

Period.    Boman. 

Figure.    104,  gazelle  horn  tip,  Shurafeh,  1912. 

Material.     Horn. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

105.  BONE. 

Meaning.  Human,  for  ulcer  (PLINY,  xxviii,  11) ;  human 
skull,  epilepsy  (BELL.,  xiv,  12) ;  hare's  pastern,  bowel  pains 
(P.  xxviii,  56) ;  pig's  pastern  promotes  discord  (P.  xxxviii, 
81);  frog,  fevers  and  aphrodisiac  (P.,  xxxii,  18);  perch 
vertebra,  tertian  fever  (P.,  xxxii,  88). 

Varieties.    A,  mammalian  bone.     B,  crocodile  plate. 

Period.    Boman. 

Figures.    A,  108a,  Shurafeh,  1912.     B,  105b,  crocodile 


26 


AMULETS     FOR    PROTECTION 


plate:  150c,  crocodile  plate  with  iron  rings,  and  silvered 
mirror  stuck  on  by  resin. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3. 

100.    CORAL. 

Meaning.  Worn  in  India  for  dangers  (PLINY,  xxxii,  11). 
Worn  by  infants  (PLINY,  xxviii,  7).  la  Italy  worn  against 
evil  eye  (BELL.,  ix). 

Period.    Graeco-Roman. 

Figure.  106,  branch  of  coral  with  silver  uraeus  twisted 
upon  it.  (See  figure  58c,  and  Coral  dog,  233c.) 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

107.    CYPUAEA  SHELL. 

Name.    Unknown. 

Meaning.  Protection  from  evil  eye  and  witchery,  from 
resemblance  to  vulva  ;  (BELL.,  Am.,  61;Fet.,  38).  In  tombs 
at  Ascolano  (BoNi,  Xuor.  Antol,  1  Oct.,  1912). 

Period.    Prehistoric  to  Roman. 

Figures.  107a,  Cyp.  pantherina,  prehistoric,  south  town, 
Naqadeh ;  107b,  Cyp.  annulus,  prehistoric,  1625  Naqadeh  ; 
107c,  d,  same,  Roman,  Gheyta  ;  107e,  Cyp.  canrica,  Ballas ; 
107f,  silver  gilt,  same  both  sides  ;  107g,  silver  sheet ;  107h, 
carnelian;  107h,  2,  dark  blue  glaze;  107J,  green  glaze, 
Mahasna  448,  Vlth  dynasty;  107k,  green  glaze;  1071,  pi. 
xliv,  black  and  white  porphyry,  XVIIIth  dynasty  ;  107m, 
green  glaze  (pi.  xlvi). 

Materials.  Shell,  Silver  gilt  1,  Silver  1,  Carnelian  1, 
Green  glaze  3,  Blue  glaze  1. 

Position.    Necklace,  and  bracelets. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  6,  E.  1,  and  many  shells. 

108.    NERITA  CRASSILABRUM  SHELL. 

Period.    Xllth  dynasty. 

Figures.     108a,  b,  Sinai,  Serabit  temple  ;  108c,  carnelian, 
threaded  with  blue-glazed  ball  beads,  Xllth  dynasty. 
Position.    Necklace. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.,  carnelian   string,  and   many 

shells. 

109.    MITRA  MACULOSA  SHELL. 

Period.     Late  prehistoric  to  Xllth  dynasty. 
Figures.    109a,   prehistoric,   Ballas;    109b,   blue   paste, 
Ballas  355,  Xllth  dynasty. 
Position.    Necklace. 
Collection.    Univ.   Coll.  P.,   string  of   beads,  and  many 

shells. 

110.    CONUS  SHELL. 

Period.    Late  prehistoric,  XXIIIth  dynasty. 
Figures.      HOa,  Zowaydeh  ;  HOb,  c  ;  HOd  (pi.  xv),  slice 
of  top,  Hawara,  XXIIIrd  dynasty. 
Position.    Necklaces. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P. 


111.    CARDIUM  EDULE  SHELL. 

Meaning.  Against  evil  eye  and  witchery  (BELL.,  ri,  4 ; 
Fet.  47). 

Period.    Prehistoric  to  Vlth  dynasty. 

Figures.  Ilia,  prehistoric,  Ballas  225;  lllb,  same  (?) ; 
lllc,  carnelian,  group  14;  Hid,  carnelian,  group  1 ;  Hie, 
carnelian,  Mahasna,  tomb  461 ;  lllf,  g,  h,  carnelian,  group 
2 ;  Hlj,  carnelian,  group  8. 

Materials.     Carnelian  8,  many  shells. 

Position.    Pectoral  pendants. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

112.    MELEAGRINA    MARGARITIFERA    SHELL 

(RED  SEA  PEARL). 

Period.    XII  to  XVIII. 

Figures.  112a — a  5  (pi.  xliv),  engraved  with  name  of 
Senusert  I ;  112c,  electrum,  with  name  of  Amenemhat  III ; 
112c,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  plain,  of  Xllth  dynasty;  112d,  gold, 
pectoral  of  King  Rasokenen ;  112e,  carnelian;  with  glass 
beads,  XVIIIth  dynasty. 

Materials.     Shell  5,  Gold  1,  Electrum  4. 

Position.     Pectoral  pendants. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  12. 

113.    CLEOPATRA  BULIMOIDES   SHELL. 

Period.     Late  prehistoric  to  Vlth  dynasty. 

Figures.  113-1,  string  of  shells,  Bellas;  113b,  bone, 
group  5  ;  113c,  green  felspar,  group  30  ;  113c,  c  2,  sard, 
group  3  ;  113d,  sard,  group  2. 

Materials.     Shells,  Sard  2,  Green  felspar  1,  Bone  1. 

Position.    Necklace. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  and  shells. 

(The  following  shells  are  found  pierced  for  wearing,  but 
no  imitations  are  known.) 

114.    PECTUNCULUS   VIOLACESCENS   SHELL. 

Meaning.  Worn  by  Troglodyte  women  against  witchery 
(STRABO,  XVI,  iv,  17) ;  pierced,  for  evil  eye  and  witchery 
(BELL.,  Fet.,  41).  Worn  in  Rome,  tombs  in  Forum  (BoNi, 
A'wor.  Antol.,  1  Oct.,  1912). 

Period.     Prehistoric. 

Figure.     114,  Ballas  519,  Naqadeh  1681. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

115.    POLINICES   MAMILLA   SHELL. 

Period.     Prehistoric. 
Figure.    115,  Ballas  572,  Koptos. 
Position.    Necklace. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P. 

116.    CASSIS  NODULOSA  SHELL. 

Period.    Late  prehistoric. 
Figure.     118,  Ballas  207. 


27 


AMULETS    FOR    PROTECTION 


Position.    Necklace. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P. 

117.  MUREX  TERNISPINA  SHELL. 

Figure.    117. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P. 

118.  HELIX  DESERTORUM  SHELL. 

Figures.  118a,  b,  c,  prehistoric,  Naqadeh  698 ;  118d, 
e,  f,  Xllth  dynasty,  Hawara ;  118g,  h,  prehistoric, 
Naqadeh  1615. 

Position.    Necklaces. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P. 

119.    CLANCULUS  PHARAONIS  SHELL. 

Period.    XXVth  dynasty. 

Figure.     119. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

120.    TURBO,   OPERCULUM 

Period.     Early. 
Figure.    120,  Koptos. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

121.    OLIVA   SHELL. 

Period.     Early. 

Figures.     121a,  b,  Koptos,  Naqadeh  1567. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

122.    TEREBRA   CONSOBRINA   SHELL. 

Period.     Prehistoric. 

Figure.     122,  Naqadeh  1567,  Koptos. 

Collection,     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

123.    STONE   IMPLEMENT. 

Names.     Pcseshkef,  and  others. 

Meaning.  To  open  the  mouth  of  the  mummy  (see  37). 
Black  round  stones  like  axes  are  called  baetuli,  and  longer 
ones  kerauniae ;  they  are  sacred,  and  potent  in  taking  cities 
and  fleets  (PLINY,  xxxvii,  51).  Called  "  thunderstones  "  in 
Italy  and  Northern  Europe ;  worn  as  charms  against 
lightning  and  evil  actions  (BELL.,  I — III ;  Fet.,  43  ;  Am.,  14). 
Also  regarded  as  thunderstones  in  China. 

Period.     Prehistoric  to  XXVIth  dynasty. 

Figures.  123a,  yellow  steatite,  Vlth  dynasty,  group  13; 
123b,  c,  black  jasper,  the  baetuli  described  by  PLINY  ;  123d, 
honey  sard,  Hawara;  123e  (pi.  xliii),  basalt;  123f  (xliii), 
slate  ;  123g  (xliii),  green  glaze,  e,  f,  g,  all  from  1st  dynasty 
town  Abydos;  123h  (xliv),  green  glaze,  Vlth  dynasty, 
Zaraby  ;  123j  (xv),  green  serpentine,  prehistoric,  Naqadeh 
1567  ;  123k,  silver  ;  1231,  iron  ;  123m  (pi.  xlv),  alabaster, 
Illahun,  XXIInd  dynasty. 


Materials.  Black  jasper  2,  Green  glaze  2,  Alabaster  1, 
Green  serpentine  1,  Yellow  steatite  1,  Honey  sard  1,  Silver  1, 
Iron  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  12. 

124.    BELL. 

Meaning.  Worn  by  children  against  the  evil  eye  (BELL., 
xv,  10).  In  Egypt  probably  worn  by  children,  as  it  has  a 
head  of  Bes  on  the  earlier  examples. 

Period.    XXVI  (?)  to  Roman. 

Figures.  124a,  iron,  Illahun;  124b,  bronze,  Gurob; 
124c,  bronze,  with  head  of  Bes  on  each  side  (pi.  xliv) ; 
124d,  bronze  (pi.  xlvi). 

Material.     All  Bronze  and  Iron. 

Position.    Bracelet. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5. 

125.    DOOR   BOLT. 

Name.     Scst. 

Meaning.     Security  (?). 

Period.     Vlth  dynasty. 

Figure.     125a,  b,  green  glaze,  Muhasna,  tomb  13. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

126.    SEATED    PRINCE. 

Name,     licpoti-liat. 
Meaning.     Protector  (?). 
Period.     XVIIIth  to  XlXth  dynasty. 
Figures.     126a,  blue  glaze  faded  white 
Rifeh. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 


126a2,  red  glaze, 


127.    PRINCESS. 

Name.     Hent. 
Meaning.     Protector  ('?). 
Period.    XVIIIth  dynasty. 

Figures.     127a,  bronze  Tell  el  Amarna,  perhaps  a  badge 
worn  by  the  household  of  a  princess  ;  127b,  blue  glaze. 
Material.     Bronze  1,  Blue  glaze  1. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

128.    MEDUSA   HEAD. 

Meaning.     To  protect  by  repelling  onlookers. 
Period.     Roman. 

Figures.     128a,  b,  green  glaze  ;  128c,  green,  yellow,  and 
black  glaze  (xliii). 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3. 

129.    BULLA. 

Meaning.     Protection. 
Period.     I  to  Roman. 

Figures.     129a,  b,  b  2  (pi.  xliii),  carnelian,  group  14 ;  129c 
(xliii),  green  opaque  serpentine,  1st  dynasty  town,  Abydos ; 


28 


AMULETS     FOR    PROTECTION 


129d,  alabaster  ;  129e,  agate,  XXIHrd  (?)  dynasty,  Ranies- 
seum ;  129f,  ivory;  129g,  jade,  gilt  resin  attached  to  end 
for  the  suspension  hole  ;  129h,  black  steatite;  1 29 j,  green 
glass  in  silver  frame :  129k,  gold  over  a  white  paste  body  ; 
1291,  flint  nodule  set  in  bronze  frame  (pi.  xlvi).  See 
Naqada,  Iviii,  Ixiv,  97. 

Materials.  Carnelian  2,  1  each  of  Emery,  Jade,  Flint, 
Agate,  Black  steatite,  Alabaster,  Gold,  Ivory,  Green  glass. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  12. 

130.    FOREHEAD   PENDANT. 

Meaning.     To  distract  and  avert  the  evil  eye. 

Varieties.  A,  plain.  B,  matwork.  C,  figures.  D,  gilt 
tube,  modern. 

Period.     Prehistoric,   Modern. 

Figures.  130a,  shell,  hook  inside  at  lower  end  to  hold 
up  veil;  130b,  shell,  Naqadeh,  T.  16;  130c,  shell,  Naqadeh 
399 ;  130d,  shell,  Naqadeh  1848;  130e,  shell,  Naqadeh  1007  ; 
130f,  shell ;  130g,  shell,  Naqadeh  1848  ;  130h,  shell,  Naqadeh 
1884 ;  130h  2,  shell,  Naqadeh  144  ;  130j,  shell,  Naqadeh,  B. 
323  ;  130k,  1,  shell ;  130m,  shell,  Naqadeh  399 ;  130n,  black 
steatite  ;  130o,  p,  black  and  white  limestone  ;  130q,  clear 
green  serpentine  ;  130r,  black  and  white  porphyry.  Type  B, 
130s,  shell  carved  in  basket  pattern,  with  hook  at  lower  end 
to  hold  up  a  veil.  Type  C,  130t,  u,  shell,  carved  as  female 
figures. 

Materials.  Shell  16,  Black  and  white  limestone  2,  Black 
steatite,  1,  Black  and  white  porphyry  1,  Clear  green  serpen- 
tine 1,  Copper  1. 

Position.  On  forehead,  as  found  in  burials,  and  curved 
to  fit  the  position. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  21. 

131.    KNOTTED   CORD. 

Meaning.  No  statement  of  the  meaning  remains  in 
Egypt,  but  in  Europe  we  find  according  to  Pliny  (xxviii,  27) 
seven  knots  in  the  girdle  effective  for  catching  hyaenas ;  in 
xxviii,  12,  a  thread  knotted  with  the  names  of  widows  is 
used  for  inguinal  hernia ;  and  knotted  hairs  of  a  she-mule 
for  conception  (xxx,  49).  In  modern  times  we  read  of  un- 
tying knots  in  cord  to  liberate  a  sailing  wind,  in  the  Isle  of 
Man,  Finland  and  Germany ;  and  three  times  three  knots 
cast,  three  on  each  of  three  coloured  threads  in  order  to 
check  a  man's  movements.  "  Among  the  Hadeudoa,  knots 
which  have  been  tied  by  a  holy  man,  or  even  by  a  fiqi 
(teacher),  while  a  text  of  the  Koran  is  recited,  are  pro- 
tective, just  as  the  ordinary  hegab,"  or  written  charm  in  a 
leather  case  (Seligmann).  The  essential  idea  seems  to  be 
making  anything  certain,  or  controlling  others. 

Period.    Xllth  to  XXVth  dynasty. 

Figures.  131a,  knot  of  cord,  of  hollow  gold,  Dahshur 
Xllth  dynasty;  131b,  cords  with  sard  pendant,  blue-glazed 
uzat  open  work,  papyrus  charm  pendants,  cowry  shells  and 
uzat  eye;  131c,  cords  with  bronze  Nefertum,  uzat  eyes  and 


cowries;  131d,  knotted  card  with  papyrus  charm  pendants, 
uzat  eyes,  and  Isis  seated  of  blue  glaze  ;  131e,  with  cowry- 
shells,  uzat  eyes  of  blue  glaze  and  bronze  open-work, 
papyrus  charm  pendant;  131f,  knotted  cords  with  baboon 
of  Tahuti  seated,  uzat  eyes  open-work,  Taurt,  tooth  of 
hyaena,  cowry  shell,  papyrus  charm  pendant ;  131g,  cord 
with  cowry  shells,  uzat  eyes,  Bast,  and  papyrus  charm.  All 
from  Kafr  Ammar,  xxiii — xxv. 

Position.    On  the  neck  and  chest. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  7. 

132.     WOVEN   CHARM. 

Meaning.     Protection. 

Period.    Coptic. 

Figure.  132,  COHC0E  AWPE,  "  May  thou  be  saved,  0 ! 
Doros,"  in  white  on  a  purple  band.  Illahun.  (An  Arab 
philosopher  of  this  name  is  mentioned  by  Suidas.) 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

133.    CHARM   CASE. 

Meaning.     To  hold  a  written  charm. 

Varieties.  A,  vertical.  B,  horizontal.  C,  square.  D, 
heart-shaped.  E,  crescent-shaped. 

Period.     Xllth  dynasty  to  Modern. 

Figures.  A,  133a,  limestone  model  inscribed  "  Bast 
lady  of  the  city,"  early  ;  133b,  gold  foil  over  resin  body, 
Xllth  dynasty  (?) ;  133c,  bronze  case,  in  form  of  obelisk, 
with  doors  engraved  on  one  side,  inscribed,  Asar  men  f 
8eka  dtt  as  f  neb  ta  :  "  For  Seka ;  may  Osiris  establish 
him,  and  may  the  lord  of  the  land  give  his  tomb,"  XXVth 
dynasty;  133d,  iron  case,  Balyzeh,  Coptic;  133e,  durite, 
with  cross  lines,  imitating  binding  (see  next) ;  133f,  roll  of 
leather,  elaborately  bound  with  thread.  For  imitation 
charm  cases  in  the  Xllth  dynasty  see  DaJichour,  xvii,  xviii, 
xix,  xxiv ;  and  later  rough  rolls  of  papyrus  on  the  cords, 
131  above.  Imitated  also  by  small  cylinders  of  wood  worn 
against  witchcraft  in  Central  Africa  (Leicester  Museum). 
See  also  imitation  charm  rolls  in  131  b,  d,  f,  g. 

B.  The  horizontal  charm  case  is  later.     133g,  pottery 
model,  Memphis,  Roman  ;  133h,  black  glass  rod,  gold  ends  ; 
133j    (pi.  xliii),  wood,  Tell  el  A  mania,  Roman,  group  24 ; 
133k,  dark  violet  opaque  glass;  1331,  green  glaze ;  133m, 
bronze,  Wushim,  all  probably  of  Roman  age  ;  133  n,  bronze, 
Arab. 

C.  The  square  package  is  of  Arab  origin.   133o,  cast  lead, 
inscribed,  La  illaha   ilia   Allah    w.t    khadamu  la  saw  yd  .  . 
"  There  is  no  god  but  Allah,  and  his  servant  shall  not  be 
put  to  shame"  :  probably  intended  for  a  Copt  to  wear,  with 
a   colourable   imitation   of    the    Muslim    formula ;    133p, 
leather  case,  containing  Arabic  charms  written  on  a  sheet 
of  paper,  12   X    17  inches,  folded  in  8  folds  each  way ; 
it  bears  57  lines  with  one  inagic  square  of  6  X  8,  and 
another  of  5  X  6,  and  a  pentacle ;   modern,  brought  by 
Martyn  Kennard  from  Nubia,  1851. 


29 


AMULETS    FOR     PROTECTION 


D.  133q  (pi.   xiiv),   silver,   peacock-blue  enamel,   loose 
plug  at  the  top  with  slip  inside  to  hold  a  written  charm  or 
relic;  133r,  bronze  imitation  of  previous,  not  opening. 

E.  133s,  gold  hollow,  with  imitation  Runic  inscription ; 
133s  2,  small  copy  in  lead,  Coptic  ;  133t,  gold,  probably  a 
copy  of  an  amulet  case.     The  charm  of  writing  2468,  the 
number  value  of  the  name  of  Baduh  the  spirit  of  carrying, 
is  still  written  on  letters  in  Egypt. 

184.    HYPOCEPIIALUS. 

Meaning.  Derived  from  the  papyrus  with  the  figure  of  a 
cow,  which  was  placed  under  the  head  of  the  dead  according 
to  the  162nd  chapter  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead.  For  an 
account  of  some  fine  examples  see  Abydos,  I.,  p.  50,  pi.  Ixxix. 

Period.     XXXth  dynasty. 

Figures.  134a,  the  deceased  mummy  on  the  back  of  the 
cow,  with  the  winged  disc  and  uraeus  over  it,  fragments  of 
formula  around ;  cartonnage  coloured  red  and  black  ;  134b, 
reverse  of  a,  the  four-ramheaded  form  of  Amen,  adored  by  two 
baboons,  two  men  and  two  women ;  above,  the  bark  of  the 
Sun ;  below,  reversed,  the  cow,  with  the  winged  disc  and  uraeus 
over  it ;  fragments  of  inscription  :  black  on  yellow  ground. 
134b  2,  a  larger  disc  with  more  figures  (like  Abyd.  Ixxix), 
and  on  reverse  the  baboons  adoring  the  shining  disc,  and 
Isis  and  Nebhat  mourning  with  the  crowned  zed  sign 
between  :  being  black  with  fine  yellow  lines  it  will  not  photo- 
graph ;  134c,  eiy;ht  crocodile  heads  around  a  disc,  with  eight 
baboons  above,  and  below  Faunhatef  offering  Maat  to  the 
hawk  of  Ra;  yellow  and  red  with  black  drawing  on  cartonnage. 

135.    INSCRIBED   STONE   CHARMS,   GREEK. 

Those  on  the  left  side  of  pi.  xxi  are  the  inscribed 
reverses  of  those  on  the  right  side  in  the  same  order,  each 
to  each. 

Figures  and  Materials.  13Sa,  black  glass,  Serapis  with 
Isis  and  Nephthys ;  "Isis  conquers";  135b,  hard  black 
limestone,  Aphrodite  drying  her  locks,  S.  Ps. ;  135c,  brown 
limestone,  Isis  nursing  Iloru?,  Athlthaththab,  blundered 
for  Athlathanulba  :  Bos  standing,  Tas  Berberctc  for 
Bebcretc  (see  135t);  135d,  black  steatite,  Mormnron  in 
Kobbli,  possibly  "  A  scaring  for  rascals,"  or  perhaps 
connected  with  mormorion —  a  transparent  black  stone  from 
India  (PLINY,  xxxvii,  63) ;  reverse  in  an  unknown  alphabet ; 
135e,  brown  jasper,  Anubis  standing  by  a  mummy  laid 
on  a  lion's  back,  Abrasax;  135f,  green  chalcedony,  lion- 
headed  serpent  radiated,  three  serpents  across  a  staff 
behind;  0  Thmouer  Khnoumis,  Z,  M,  KH=6i7  ;  135g, 
black  limestone,  Set  standing  holding  serpents  and  onkh ;  In 
S?t  laid;  laed  ba  phren  emoun  (see  135aa);  135h, haematite, 
hawk  .  .  .  atha,  five  letters  in  an  unknown  alphabet ;  .  .  . 
or;  135j,  haematite,  the  sun's  disc  in  an  enclosure  (see  135v, 
pi.  xxii)  with  ears  of  corn  and  serpents,  Isis  and  Anubis  (?) 
above  it,  loo  oro  riouth ;  Aphreni,  Sumbel,  Mekhtu,  Pskhr 
(?  Sokar)  cimi,  Ikhankhala,  Eoulkheottkh,  apparently  the 
names  of  genii ;  135k,  haematite,  body  of  Harpekroti  upon  a 


galloping  lion;  wreath  and  leaf,  Eukairian,  "  good  fortune  "  ; 
1351,  black  limestone,  figure  standing  with  uraeus  on  head, 
Atherne  Mind  Pisidaos  Thibrim,  Paausildi :  four  blundered 
cartouches,  among  them  the  two  cartouches  of  Ramessu  II, 
and  that  of  Merneptah.  Tell  el  Yehudiyeh  ;  135m,  blue 
glass,  Horus  radiated  in  a  bark,  between  Isis  and  Nephthys 
winged;  Sabaoth  Adonai, "  Lord  of  Hosts"  ;  135n,  blue  glass, 
Horus  on  the  lotus  in  a  bark,  above  him  three  khepers 
(triune  Creator),  behind  him  three  goats  (evil  persons),  before 
him  probably  were  three  hawks  (justified  persons),  as  on  135y ; 
around,  a  ram,  a  lion,  Set,  Anubis  and  four  signs  lost ; 
Plire  (the  sun)  thbain  .  .  .  doi  .  .  .  and  three  lines  of 
unknown  letters;  135o,  Prussian  blue  glass,  heart  of  Osiris 
and  heart  of  Isis  facing  ;  lie  Kharis,  "  favour."  This  may 
belong  to  the  followers  of  Marcus,  who  taught  the  partaking 
of  the  Kharis  in  the  wine  (!REN.,  adv.  Ilaer.,  I,  xiii,  1 — 3)  ; 
135p,  black  steatite,  lion-headed  uraeus  of  Khnumu,  over 
the  sun's  disc  in  an  enclosure,  traces  of  inscription  around ; 
Bennu  bird  (soul  of  Osiris)  wilh  triple  plant  on  a  stand, 
(compare  the  triple  plant  on  stand  behind  Min),  loo  ;  135q. 
black  steatite,  the  bennu  as  before,  crescent  above,  two 
serpents  across  a  staff  below;  Eupepti,  " good  digestion"; 
135r,  black  steatite,  lion-headed  uraeus,  in  circle,  two 
serpents  across  staff;  bennu  bird  as  on  135p  (seelSSv,  w, 
next  plate).  PI.  xxii ;  135s,  black  haematite,  sun's  disc  in  an 
enclosure,  lion-headed  serpent  over  it,  figure  in  front,  bar 
behind ;  135t,  black  steatite,  Tas  bcberte ;  135u,  black 
jasper,  head  of  Serapis,  diliullsse  (division  uncertain) ; 
135v,  w,  as  135r.  On  pi.  xlvi,  135x,  jasper,  dark  green  blood 
stone,  Harpokrates  on  the  lotus  in  a  papyrus  bark,  with  a 
crowned  hawk  on  either  end,  star  in  front;  135y,  haematite, 
figures  holding  a  spear,  star  before,  crescent  behind  ;  on  the 
back  Mikhail;  135z,  lazuli,  crowned  seated  figure  holding 
plnale ;  on  the  back  Primou. 

135aa,  bronze;  for  the  details  of  this  elaborate  amulet  it 
will  be  best  to  examine  the  facsimile  on  an  enlarged  scale 
(pi.  xlix),  with  transcription  and  translation  of  the  intelligible 
parts.  On  the  first  face  is  a  large  central  figure  of  Bes, 
with  two  additional  human  faces,  one  on  either  side.  The 
elaborate  head-dress  of  animal  heads,  the  four  wings,  and 
the  serpent  at  the  feet  enclosing  various  noxious  animals, 
are  all  seen  on  a  bronze  figure  of  Bes  from  the  Serapeum, 
and  on  the  Metternich  stele  (LANZONB,  l)iz.  Mit.,  Ixxx,  Ixxxi). 
At  the  proper  right  is  Bakhakhukh ;  this  phrase  repeated 
adding  a  syllable  each  time,  occurs  in  the  Greek  and 
Demotic  magical  papyri.  The  four-headed  ram  comes 
next,  with  the  name  Khab,  a  god  of  the  north  with  four 
rams'  heads  (LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  1190).  Next  is  the  name  Bait 
for  Ra,  the  four-headed  ram(L.,  D.  M,.  clxxxii).  Following 
is  the  title  Ph  ncskherphi,  probably  connected  with  kripld  in 
the  laeo  formula.  This  is  followed  by  Pltokhos,  a  word  found 
in  theLeyden  magical  papyrus,  and  as  PhOx  in  the  Demotic 
magic  papyrus.  Phi/lax,  "  the  guardian,"  is  the  title  of  the 
sphinx  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  axis.  Beyond  this  is  a 
gryphon,  with  the  words  lie  gom  ph.  ...  In  the  next 


30 


AMULETS    FOR     PROTECTION 


register  is  a  bandaged  mummy,  holding  scourges  on  each 
of  which  are  two  uraei ;  by  the  side  is  Ablanathanalba,  a 
word  often  found  in  magic  papyri  (Greek  in  British  Museum, 
Paris,  and  Leyden,  also  Demotic),  and  on  gems.  It  is  a 
reversible  phrase,  the  latter  half  made  by  reversing  the 
former  part ;  ablanath  is  the  group  to  be  explained.  Opposite 
is  Anubis  standing,  with  Alfximandrc-ida,  "  bark,  guardian 
of  man."  Behind  him  is  lao-la-ila-ma ;  it  is  tempting  to 
see  in  this  an  early  type  of  the  formula  of  Islam,  "  la  illaha 
ilia  Allah  " ;  ma  might  be  an  Egyptian  form  of  Aramaic 
imi,  "  with  me,"  Egyptain  my,  "  with  me,"  Arabic  mdi. 
Thus  the  formula  might  be  rendered,  "  I  AM,  there  is 
none  else  with  me,"  testifying  the  Unity.  The  phrase  is 
common  in  the  Paris  and  British  Museum  Greek  papyri. 

In  the  third  register  is  a  partly  defaced  figure  with  two 
large  animal  legs,  and  a  crown  of  seven  uraei.  Compare 
with  parts  of  Horus  in  LANZ.,  D.  M.,  ecxvii.  By  this  begins 
the  Akrammahhamarix,  which  occurs  with  the  termination 
marei  in  the  British  Museum  and  Paris  papyri.  It  is  almost 
a  reversible  word,  and  akhramakh  is  the  group  to  be 
explained.  Possibly  the  Semitic  kerim,  gracious  or  noble, 
may  be  the  source,  and  the  phrase  be  "  thy  most  gracious 
one."  This  would  agree  with  the  subject  of  Horus,  tramp- 
ling on  crocodiles,  and  subduing  the  noxious  animals.  The 
lion  in  the  group  has  Saba  by  it,  the  Arabic  saba,  "  a  lion," 
justifying  our  looking  to  an  Arabic  form  for  the  phrase 
akhramakh.  Above  this  is  a  lion  trampling  on  a  skeleton, 
a  group  seen  in  other  Gnostic  objects — a  magical  papyrus 
in  Paris,  and  a  gem.  Below  is  Abrasax,  the  mysterious 
word  commonest  on  Gnostic  amulets,  which  has  not  been 
explained.  The  numerical  values  of  the  letters  total  to  365. 
Irenaeus  (adv.  Haeres,  i,  xxiv,  7)  says  that  the  Basilidians 
declare  that  their  chief  is  Abrasax  (Greek)  or  Abraxas 
(Latin  version).  It  is  therefore  a  divine  name. 

On  the  reverse  of  the  amulet  are,  at  the  top,  the  Divine 
names,  lad  lesous.  Below  these  are  three  scarabs,  the  self- 
becoming  animal,  emblems  of  the  Creative  Trinity.  Below 
is  Horus  in  the  bark,  which  shows  the  direction  to  be 
facing  the  three  hawks.  These  birds  are  the  souls  of  the 
Just,  standing  before  the  Trinity ;  behind  are  the  evil 
animals  going  away,  three  goats,  three  serpents,  and  three 
crocodiles.  Under  the  hawks  is  the  reversible  inscription 
laeo  ba  phren  emoun  othilari  on  acu  (reversing)  ea  iphirk 
ira  litho  mtome  nerph  ab  deal.  This  sentence  is  found 
elsewhere  in  completely  reversible  form,  with  kriphi  in 
place  of  on  in  the  first  half,  in  magical  papyri  of  British 
Museum,  Paris,  and  Berlin.  The  substitution  of  on  for 
kriphi  here  is  of  value,  as  showing  how  the  sentence  is 
to  be  divided,  and  that  some  equivalence  may  be  looked  for 
in  these  two  words.  Also  the  sentence  breaks  after  emoun, 
as  shown  by  135g.  In  the  centre  is  Horus  seated  in  the 
lotus  flower  in  a  boat,  with  a  figure  before  him.  Behind 
is  Brinteti  en,  which  must  be  compared  with  the  phrase 
below,  Brintat  enophri,  clearly  enophri  is  un-nefer,  "  the 
good  Being,"  and  en  may  be  un,  "  the  being."  Behind  this 


is  a  radiated  lion-headed  god,  holding  a  radiated  lion-headed 
serpent,  and  the  onkh.  This  is  a  form  of  Ehnumu,  as  he 
is  called  Khnoubis  Kharnous,  which  is  a  late  form  of  Khnumu 
kahran,  "the  horned." 

In  the  second  register  is  a  figure  wrapped  in  wings, 
holding  a  standard.  In  the  middle  is  a  four-armed 
crowned  Horus ;  the  inscription  is  only  legible  at  the  end, 
Ph  noeououti,  a  prolonged  form  of  pa  nuter,  "  the  god."  In 
front  is  another  Horus  with  the  royal  attributes  of  the 
scourge  and  tail  (LANZ.,  D.  M.,  ccxxvii,  1). 

In  the  third  register  is  Thoth  seated,  with  a  female 
figure  before  him,  carrying  a  standard  and  other  objects. 
Before  these  is  a  hawk  with  serpent  tail,  carrying  a  branch. 
This  is  named  Ar  p<>  khnoiqihis,  "Horus  the  creator,"  and 
behind  is  Brintat  enophri.  This  combination  is  found  in 
Demotic  and  in  the  Paris  Greak  papyrus.  Below  khnouphi 
may  possibly  be  Rostlii  Thuth  neorlmi.  Below  can  be 
distinguished  a  lion,  with  perhaps  Saba  behind  it,  and  a 
baboon  of  Thoth  with  the  head  of  the  ibis  of  Thoth  on  the 
back ;  the  other  signs  and  letters  can  hardly  be  settled 
without  some  better  example  of  such  figures. 

At  first  sight  the  mixture  of  Egyptian,  Semitic  and 
Greek  would  seem  incredible  to  a  scholar  of  any  one  of  the 
languages ;  yet  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  e:ich  of  these 
elements.  The  names  and  figures  of  the  gods  show  how 
largely  the  Egyptian  enters  into  the  mixture  ;  the  Semitic 
is  shown  by  Sola,  the  lion,  which  makes  more  probable  the 
readings  of  Akhrammakh  and  lao  Li  ila  ma  ,•  and  the  Greek 
is  evident  in  Alexinvandreula  and  1'ht/la.i:  The  looseness, 
of  the  equivalents  is  seen  in  the  variants  Re,  Ran,  laeo, 
lao,  Khnoubis,  Khnouphis,  Brintat,  Brinteti,  so  that  we 
cannot  take  literal  accuracy  as  a  criterion.  The  main  value  of 
this  amulet  is  in  the  figures  which  help  to  attach  a 
meaning  to  the  phrases  in  the  magical  papyri. 

The  following  references  to  papyri  containing  these 
names  I  owe  to  the  kindness  of  Sir  Herbert  Thompson  :— 

Bakhakhukh,  etc.,  W.  S.  V.  p.  19,  No.  16,  1.  50  and  70. 
B.  M.  G.  P.  xlvi,  1.  11,  362.  G.  P.  M.  D.,  v  8,  vi  25,  viii.  10. 
xxvii,  13  (see  note  to  v  8). 

Phokhos.  L.  P.  G.  in  D.  A.  1891,  pp.  180,  184. 
G.  P.  M.  D.  iv  18. 

Ablanath.etc.  B.M.  xlvi,l.  G3,478(B.  M.  G.P.,  L,  67,  80). 
P.  P.  1.  3030,  L.  P.  G.,V,  4a  3,  5a  15.  G.  P.  M.  D.,L,  16, 
verso  xxii  13,  xxvii  8.  Also  often  on  gems. 

Lailama.  P.  P.  1625,  1804,  1983.  D.  A.,  p  5.  B.  M. 
xlvi,  1.  349.  See  index  of  B.  M.  G.  P.,  I.,  p.  261. 

Abrasax.     P.  Z.  G.  P.,  I,  1.  303,  II,  1.  154.     D.  A.,  p  182. 

Akhrammakh, eta.  B.  M.  xlvi,  1.  63  ;  B.  M.  G.  P.,  I.,  index, 
p.  256.  P.  P.  982,  3030.  Mimaut  pap.,  1.  79  (see  \Vessely). 

Lion  treading  on  skeleton.     D.  A.  p.  53.      P.  P.,  1.  2132. 

lesous.     P.  P.  1283,  3020. 

laeo  ba  phren  emoun,  etc.  P.  P.,  1.  398.  B.  M.  xlvi,  col.  5 
verso.  P.  Z.  G.  P.,  I.  Mimaut  pap.  1. 59. 

Arpokhnoupi,  etc.  P.  Z.  G.  P.,  I,  237.  P.P.,  2199. 
G.  P.  M.  D.  xvi  6—7. 


31 


AMULETS     FOR     PROTECTION 


The  above  initials  are  :  B.  M.  G.  P.,  British  Museum 
Greek  Papyri.  D.  A.,  Dietrich,  Abraxas.  G.  P.  M.  D., 
Griffith,  Pap.  mag.  demotic.  L.  P.  G.,  Leyden,  Pap.  Grk. 
P.  P.,  Paris  papyrus  in  Wessely,  Griechische  Zaiiberpapyrus 
von  Paris  u.  London,  Wiener  Denkschr.  1888.  P.  Z.  G.  P., 
Parthoy,  Zwei  griechische  Papyri  d.  Berliner  Mus.  1866. 
W.  S.  V.,  Wiinsch,  SethianiscJie  Verftiichungstafeln. 


figure  standing  with  four  characters  behind  ;  136j,  grey 
steatite,  unknown'signs.  PI.  xxiii,  136k,  1,  slate  tablets  with 
degraded  Kufic  inscriptions ;  136m,  black  jasper,  the  moon 
and  Cancer,  the  house  of  the  moon  ;  the  sun  and  Leo,  the 
house  of  the  sun  ;  barbaric  imitation  of  inscription ;  this 
stone  has  been  broken,  and  mounted  in  a  silver  band,  with 
the  suspension  ring  at  the  bottom. 


136.    INSCRIBED  STONE   CHARMS,   NON-GREEK. 

Figures  and  Materials.  PI.  xxi,  136a,  black  steatite, 
Horus  hand  in  hand  with  another  figure;  two  lines  of 
inscription.  PI.  xxii,  136b,  five  views,  baealt ;  a  divinity 
holding  a  branch  standing  on  the  back  of  a  couchant  bull ; 
a  tree,  with  two  lines  of  inscription  below ;  four  lines  of 
inscription  on  the  base  ;  a  palm  tree  with  two  young  ones  ; 
a  mountain,  like  Mt.  Argaeus  on  the  coins  of  Caesarea,  two 
lines  of  inscription.  From  the  types  and  characters  it 
appears  to  belong  to  the  Cilician  region ;  136c,  black 
steatite,  Horus  on  crocodiles  of  usual  type,  but  with  hiero- 
glyphs reduced  to  a  barbaric  imitation,  as  also  on  the  back; 
136d,  black  steatite,  a  figure  standing  with  a  staff  in  the 
hands,  lines  of  characters  on  the  back  resembling  Mandaite ; 
136e,  limestone  blackened,  two  bird-headed  figures  over  a 
worshipper  ;  four  lines  of  degraded  Semitic  ;  136f,  two  figures 
with  a  serpent  coiled  on  a  staff;  three  lines  of  degraded 
Semitic;  136g,  slate,  an  ass-headed  figure  with  legs  ending 
in  serpents  ;  four  lines  of  degraded  characters  ;  136h,onyx, 


137.    CROSS. 

Name.     Stauros. 

Meaning.     Salvation  and  protection. 

Varieties.     A,  plain  cross.     B,  Chi-rho  cross. 

Period.     Coptic. 

Figures.  A,  137a,  b,  c,  c2  to  6d,  bronze;  137d2,  lead; 
137e,  f,  g,  g  2  smaller,  h,  bronze  ;  137j,  mother  of  pearl; 
137k,  bronze;  1371,  lead;  137m,  black  steatite,  Koptos; 
137n,  n  2,  with  two  balls  on  ends,  o,  o  2,  bronze  ;  137o  3, 
lead  ;  137p,  bronze  ;  137q,  wood,  and  q  2,  rougher  ;  137r,  s, 
bone;  137t,  1 2,  iron  ;  137u,  wood;  137v,  y,  bronze  Mem- 
phis; 137w,  bronze;  137x,  lead;  137z,  bronze,  hollow 
reliquary  case  with  aquamarine  on  the  centre.  B,  137aa 
(xliv),  dark  blue  glass,  cross  white,  red  spots  around, 
aa  2,  similar  in  light  blue  glass.  On  pi.  xlvi,  A,  137ab, 
bone;  137ac,  lead;  137ad,  lead;  137ae,  af,  lead,  cross  in 
circle. 

Materials.  Bronze  22,  Lead  8,  Wood  3,  Iron  2,  Bone  2, 
Black  steatite  1,  Mother  of  pearl  1. 


CHAPTER    VII 
AMULETS  OF  HUMAN-HEADED  GODS 

THEOPHORIC  AMULETS,  138 — 179. 


When  the  dim  ideas  of  similars  and  of  charms — such  as 
the  Eskimo  now  use — had  given  place  to  a  belief  in  gods 
with  intelligence  and  feelings  akin  to  those  of  men,  it  was 
quite  natural  that  the  images  of  such  deities  should  take  the 
place  of  the  stocks  and  stones  which  had  been  venerated. 
The  system  of  amulets  was  at  once  adapted  to  the  theistic 
beliefs,  and  figures  of  the  gods  became  the  most  popular  of 
:ill  amulets.  The  very  different  numbers  of  amulets  of  the 
various  gods  show  clearly  which  were  the  most  generally 
worshipped.  Horus,  Isis  and  Osiris  account  for  much  more 
than  half  of  the  human- headed  figures.  As  the  eye  of  Horus 
was  one  of  the  earliest  amulets,  we  begin  with  it  here,  as 
introducing  the  Horus  group. 

138.    UZAT     EYE     OF     HORUS. 

Name.     Uzat  (MacG.  52). 

Meaning.  The  eye  of  Horus.  The  uzat  eyes  are 
properly  a  pair,  right  and  left,  representing  the  two  eyes  of 


Horus,  which  are  also  compared  to  the  sun  and  moon. 
"  The  140th  chapter  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  refers  to  the 
sun  as  the  eye,  and  was  to  be  "  Said  on  an  eye  of  pure 
Lazuli  or  mak  stone  ornamented  with  gold  ;  an  offering  is 
made  before  it  of  all  things  good  and  holy ;  .  .  .  another 
is  made  of  jasper,  which  a  man  will  put  on  any  of  his  limbs 
that  he  chooses."  The  167th  chapter  refers  to  an  uzat  eye 
brought  by  Tahuti. 

Varieties.  The  main  classes  are  put  under  different 
numbers  here,  from  138  to  142.  In  this  class,  138,  we  may 
discriminate  A,  the  earliest  form  (Old  Kingdom)  with  very 
short  appendages,  imitating  the  pattern  of  feathers  below  the 
hawk's  eye;  B,  larger  appendages,  with  a  flat  surface;  C, 
coloured  surface  ;  D,  incised  surface.  The  order  in  the  plates 
is  that  of  the  age  as  nearly  as  can  be  estimated.  The  order 
of  numbering  and  description  is  that  of  the  classification. 

Period.    VI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  Type  A,  138a,  brown  limestone  group  8 ; 
138b,  c,  d,  sard,  groups  1,  2,  7 ;  138e,  green  felspar,  group 


82 


AMULETS     OF     HUMAN-HEADED     GODS 


80;  138f,  bone,  group  13  ;  138g,  sard,  group  14;  138g2, 
sard,  group  7 ;  138h,  bone,  group  5 ;  138h  2,  sard,  group  2 ; 
138J,  j  2,  j  8,  k,  k2,  sard,  group  8;  138j  4,  sard,  group  7. 
Type  B,  1381,  hard  white  calcite,  back  similar  ;  1381 2,  same, 
back  plain;  138m,  volcanic  ash ;  138m  2,  3,  diorite;  ni  4, 
syenite;  m  5,  grey  porphyry ;  m6,  pink  limestone;  m  7, 
chlorite;  m  8,  haematite  ;  m  9,  grey  marble;  m  10,  dark 
blue  glass ;  138n,  porphyry ;  138o,  diorite  ;  138o  2,  jade  ; 
138p,  steatite,  XVIII,  Tell  Arnarna  ;  138p  2,  grey  por- 
phyry; 138q,  porphyry.  Type  C,  138r,  blue  glaze,  black 
relief;  138s,  same,  Memphis,  XXIII;  138t,  same,  faded; 
138u,  blue,  black  lines,  Karnak,  XXV;  138u2,  similar; 
1 38u  3,  green  glaze,  Naukratis.  Type  D,  138v,  jade;  138v2, 
green  glaze;  138w,  olive  green  glaze;  138x,  carnelian; 
138x2,  dark  blue,  three  joined;  138x3,  blue  paste,  Nau- 
kratis; 138y,  apple-green  glaze,  Gizeh;  138y2— 5,  blue 
glaze,  Naukratis  ;  138z,  diorite;  138aa,  yellow  green  glaze  ; 
138ab,  blue  and  black  glaze;  138ab  2,  green  glaze  ;  138ac, 
green  glaze,  Memphis;  138ad,  light  blue-green  glaze  ; 
138ad2— 9,  green  glaze;  138ae,  faded  blue  and  black 
glaze;  138ae  2— 19,  blue  and  black  glaze,  Zuweleyn  and 
Tanis ;  138af  (pi.  xliv),  green  and  black  glaze,  Dendereh, 
Ptolemaic  ;  138ag  (xliv),  gold,  XVIII.  (See  131b,  c,  d,  e,  f, 
also  four  early  examples  in  Deshasheh  and  many  of  XXII 
to  XXV  in  Hyksos  and  Israelite  Citicx). 

Materials.  Sard  29,  Green  and  blue  glaze  46,  Porphyry 
15,  Amethyst  5,  Green  felspar  5,  Gold  5,  Carnelian  3, 
Diorite  3,  Calcite  2,  Grey  agate  2,  Haematite  3,  Lazuli  2, 
Bone  2,  Jade  2,  and  1  each  of  Syenite,  Volcanic  ash,  Ser- 
pentine, Chlorite,  Steatite,  Brown  limestone,  Grey  marble, 
Pink  limestone,  Blue  glass,  Blue  paste. 

Position.  Forehead  (3);  throat  (5);  chest  (14);  stomach 
(8)  ;  arms  and  hands  (3). 

Collection.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  39,  E.  47.  The  lack  of  detail 
in  most  catalogues  prevents  the  statement  of  these  different 
classes. 


139.    UZAT  EYE   (UNUSUAL  TYPES). 

Varieties.  A,  open  work.  B,  inlaid.  C,  metal  plate. 
D,  engraved  on  ring.  E,  in  square  form.  F,  in  cartouche. 

Period.     XII  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  Type  A,  open  work,  139a,  b,  silver;  139c, 
electrum  ring ;  139d,  green  glaze ;  139e,  amethyst,  Koptos, 
XII  (?) ;  139f,  g,  deep  blue  glaze,  curved  to  fit  the  wrist,  Uzat 
with  nefe.r,  XVIII;  139h,  olive  and  black  glaze,  XXIII; 
139h  2—5,  blue  glaze  ;  139h  6,  blue  and  black  glaze,  large ; 
139j,  k,  deep  blue  glaze,  modern  amulet  beads,  copied  from 
uzat.  Type  B,  inlaid,  1391,  blue  and  black  glaze,  inlaid 
with  white  glaze  eye,  and  red  glaze  cheek ;  139m,  green 
and  black  glaze,  traces  of  red  paste,  inlay ;  139m  2,  blue 
glaze,  Nebesheh ;  139m  3 — 12,  green  glaze,  Naukratis. 
Type  C,  metal  plate,  139n,  silver  plate,  incised ;  139n  2 
(xlvii),  lead  plate,  similar  but  larger,  scale  2:5;  139ii  3 
(xlvii),  larger  pewter  plate  cut  to  outline  of  eye,  scale  2:5; 


139n  4  (xlvii),  copper  plate,  eye  em  bossed,  scale  2:5;  139o, 
bronze,  eye  inlaid  with  coloured  limestone,  and  coloured 
glass  above  and  below.  Type  D,  on  ring,  139p,  jasper 
ring,  engraved  with  uzat.  Type  E,  square,  139q,  green 
and  black  glaze ;  139q  2—7,  green,  Nebesheh  ;  139r,  dull 
green  glaze;  139r  2,  green  glaze  (xlvii);  139s,  green  glaze 
burnt  brown  ;  139t,  green  glaze;  139u,  bronze.  Type  F, 
139v  (pi.  xliv),  yellow  glaze. 

Materials.  Green  and  blue  glaze  84,  Silver  8,  Bronze  8, 
Lead  2,  Electrum  1,  Amethyst  1,  Jasper  1,  Yellow  glaze  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  24,  E.  22. 

140.    UZAT  EYE,    MULTIPLE. 

Varieties.  A,  bead  cylinder.  B,  double  eye.  C,  quad- 
ruple eye.  D,  multiple  eye. 

Period.     XXIIIth  to  XXVth  dynasty. 

Figures.  Type  A,  140a,  green  glaze  gone  brown,  two 
eyes  alternate  with  two  onkhs ;  liOb,  green  and  black  glaze, 
three  eyes;  140c,  deep  blue  and  black  glaze,  two  eyes. 
Type  B,  140d,  light  green,  inscribed  Sekhmet  on  back, 
Zuweleyn.  Type  C,  140e,  yellow  paste,  with  traces  of  blue 
paste  inlay,  reverse  below;  140f,  blue  glaze, black  lines  and 
yellow  rosette;  140g,  green  and  black  glaze,  two  aaz  plants 
between  the  eyes  ;  140g  2,  3,  similar,  Memphis ;  140g  4,  5, 
flat  plate,  green,  yellow.  Type  D,  140h,  green  glaze  and 
black,  rosette  on  back,  20  eyes  ;  140h  2,  green  gone  brown ; 
140j,  green  faded  and  black,  uzat  on  back,  28  eyes.  Another 
in  Price  Collection  had  21  eyes. 

Materials.     Green  and  blue  glaze  13,  Yellow  glaze  1. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  10,  E.  4. 

141.    UZAT  EYE,   WITH  GODS. 

M  family.  The  163rd  chapter  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead 
concerns  the  mystic  eyes,  and  is  to  be  "  Said  on  a  serpent 
having  two  legs,  and  bearing  a  two-horned  disc.  Two  eyes 
are  before  him,  having  two  legs  and  two  wings."  This  may 
refer  to  some  such  figure  as  the  type  A. 

Varieties.  A,  vulture  and  uraeus.  B,  wing  and  arm. 
C,  with  cats.  D,  with  bull.  E,  with  apes.  F,  with  lion. 
G,  on  hills.  H,  with  Ra.  J,  with  Sekhmet  or  Bastet. 

Period.     XXIIIrd  dynasty. 

Figures.  Type  A,  141a,  the  vulture's  legs  and  wings 
below  the  eye,  and  a  uraeus  before  it.  Type  B,  141b,  blue 
glaze,  with  white  glaze  eye  and  obsidian  pupil,  and  red 
glaze  inlay  above  and  below  the  vulture's  wings,  and  an 
arm  grasping  an  onkh,  Eamesseum,  XlXth  dynasty  (?). 
Type  C,  141c,  green-blue  glaze,  flat  back,  with  19  cats,  and 
secondary  uzat  above  the  pupil;  141d,  blue  and  black 
glaze,  with  13  cats  ;  141e,  blue  and  black  glaze,  with  9  cats. 
Type  D,  141f,  green  glaze  faded,  with  bull ;  141g,  green 
glaze,  bull  on  platform,  lotus  in  front,  7  uraei  above.  Type 
E,  141h,  green  glaze,  two  baboons  adoring  the  uzat  eye, 
with  nub  below,  plain  back  (compare  MaeG.  74).  Type  F, 
j,  light  blue  glaze,  couchant  lion  above,  resting  on  three 


AMULETS     OF     HUMAN -HEADED     GODS 


uzat  eyes,  behind  which  are  12  uraei ;  141k,  apple-green 
glaze,  couchant  lion,  resting  on  9  uraei,  behind  which  are 
three  uzat  eyes.  Type  G,  1411,  jade,  partly  decomposed, 
the  uzat  engraved  on  both  sides,  resting  upon  the  triple 
hill  sign,  representing  Horus  in  the  horizon.  Type  H, 
141m  (pi.  xliv),  Ka  on  back,  green  glaze.  Type  J,  141n,  o, 
p,  9,  green  glaze,  with  Sekhmet. 
Collection.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  12. 

142.    UZAT  EYE,   INSCRIBED. 

Meaning  and  Varieties.  The  uzat  is  associated  with  a 
group  of  seven  goddesses,  whose  names  are  found  singly  on 
the  square  eyes,  or  altogether  on  one  eye. 

Period.    XXIInd  dynasty. 

Figures.  142a,  green-glazed  square  with  uzat  in  relief, 
on  back  is  impressed  the  name  of  the  goddess  Uazet;  142b, 
same  with  Bastet ;  142c,  with  Aset ;  142d,  with  Nebhat ; 
142e,  with  Sekhmet ;  142f,  with  Selket ;  142g,  with  Neit,  all 
from  Zuweleyn;  142h,  blue  paste,  with  names  of  Uazet, 
Bastet,  Aset,  Nebhat,  Sekhmet,  Selket,  and  Neit;  1 42 j, light 
blue  glaze,  gone  white,  uzat  in  relief  with  name  of  Aset  (?) ; 
142k,  green  glaze,  reverse  of  141n,  name  of  Uazet. 

Materials.  In  general,  the  various  types  of  uzat  not 
being  sufficiently  distinguished  in  catalogues,  the  materials 
in  other  collections  of  Nos.  138  to  142  are  here  stated 
together  ;  the  materials  in  University  College  collection  are 
stated  above  in  detail.  Green  glaze  178,  Blue  glaze  116, 
Carnelian  84,  Lazuli  25,  Red  jasper  28,  Haematite  22, 
Obsidian  13,  Porphyry  8,  Serpentine  7,  Prase  7,  Limestone 
6,  Steatite  6,  Syenite  6,  Diorite  4,  Granite  4,  Green  felspar  4, 
Blue  glass  4,  Basalt  3,  Silver  3,  Red  glass  3,  Gold  2,  Calcite 
2,  Grey  agate  1,  Brown  and  green  limestone  1,  Crystal  1, 
Slate  1,  Brown  limestone  1,  Beryl  1,  Silver  gilt  1,  Black 
glass  1,  Green  glass  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  100,  E.  84,  Price  124,  St. 
Petersburg  85,  Turin  84,  Alnwick  75,  Cairo  71,  Athens  16, 
Edinburgh  10. 

143.    HORUS  THE  HUNTER. 

Name.     Har. 

Meaning.     The  overcoming  of  evil  beasts. 

Period.    XXXth  dynasty. 

Figure.     143. 

Material.     Bronze. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

144.    HORUS    ON   THE   CROCODILES. 

The  great  example  of  this  usual  household  amulet  is  the 
Metternich  stele,  published  by  Golenischeff,  1877.  Perhaps 
the  earliest  are  two  in  limestone,  which  by  the  work  may 
be  of  the  XXVth  dynasty,  one  in  Cairo,  9,403,  and  one 
14  inches  wide,  15  high  to  broken  top,  with  fifteen 
lines  of  inscription  on  the  back,  in  University  College,  P., 


as  also  a  smaller  one  in  limestone  8  inches  wide,  perhaps 
XXXth  dynasty. 

Meaning.     Protection  from  noxious  animals. 

Period.    XXV  (?)  to  Roman. 

Figures.  144a,  white  marble,  ten  lines  of  inscription  on 
back  ;  144b,  black  steatite,  reverse  six  lines,  "  Beloved  of 
Set,  Anhur  and  Tahuti  (?).  Hnil  to  thee  god  son  of  a 
god  ;  hail  to  thee  heir  son  of  an  heir  ;  hail  to  thee  bull 
son  of  a  bull,  born  of  the  great  cow,1'  see  Metternich  stele, 
11.  101 — 5;  144b  2,  blue  glaze,  small,  very  rough;  144c, 
black  steatite,  reverse  four  lines,  "  Become  Horus,  Osiris, 
Amru  and  Ptah,"  etc. ;  144d,  cast  lead,  for  reverse,  see 
below  it,  hawk  on  standard  as  net,  Isis  standing  behind, 
Gurob  ;  144e  (see  pi.  xliii),  black  steatite,  reverse  (see 
pi.  xli),  described  under  No.  241  ;  144f,  light  green  glaze, 
Isis  and  Nebhat  standing  at  the  sides,  winged  Isis  on  the 
back  (similar  at  St.  Petersburg). 

Collections.  Cairo  27,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  8,  E.  1,  Turin  6, 
Price  4,  St.  Petersburg  5,  Alnwick  3. 

145.    HORUS   THE   CHILD. 

Name.     Har-pc-kroti. 

Meaning.     Horus  as  an  infant. 

Varieties.     A,  seated.     B,  on  goose.     C,  standing. 

Period.     VI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  145a,  bone,  group  8,  Vlth  dynasty  (see 
Dcshaslieh,  xxvi,  32) ;  143b,  blue-glazed  quartz  crystal, 
Xllth  dynasty;  145c,  d,  bronze;  145d2,  black  steatite; 
145e,  black  steatite,  Horus  seated  on  the  ground,  Xllth 
dynasty  (?)  ;  145f,  g,  silver,  group  16;  148g  2,  bronze; 
1451i,  black  steatite;  145j,  silver,  group  17  ;  145k,  silver  on 
ring  ;  1451  (pi.  xlv),  quartz  crystal ;  145m — m  5  (pi.  xlv), 
carnelian  ;  148n, blue  glaze,  Roman;  145nn  (xlvi),  blue  glaze, 
Illahun,  XXII ;  155o,  bronze  ;  145p,  p  2,  q,  r,  r  2,  bronze  ; 
145s,  on  lion  throne,  blue  glaze,  Memphis ;  145t,  blue 
glaze.  Type  B,  145u,  v,  blue  glaze  with  yellow  points, 
group  22,  Roman  ;  145v  2,  coarse  blue  glaze.  Type  C, 
145\v,  x,  blue  glaze  with  yellow  points,  group  22,  Roman. 
Similar  figures  of  B  and  C  types,  of  large  size,  in  rough  terra 
cotta,  are  very  common  as  household  amulets  of  Roman 
age  ;  145y  (xlvii),  dark  blue  glaze,  holding  club  ;  145z, 
green  glaze,  phallic,  holding  baboon  and  vase  (xxvii). 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  18,  Bronze  9,  Green  glaze  7, 
Silver  4,  Carnelian  4,  Quartz  crystal  1,  Black  steatite  2, 
Glazed  quartz  2,  Lazuli  2,  Grey  glaze  1,  bone  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  20,  E.  5,  St.  Petersburg  10, 
Turin  4,  Murch  6. 

146.    HORUS   ON   LOTUS. 

This  is  not  known  before  Greek  times,  and  so  may  easily 
be  an  Indian  idea  imported  ;  but  Horus  in  the  marshes  of 
Buto  is  so  ancient  an  idea  that  the  type  might  well  arise  in 
Egypt. 


34 


AMULETS     OF     HUMAN-HEADED    GODS 


Figure.  146,  gold,  with  traces  of  blue  glass  inlay  in  the 
lotus,  group  15.  From  north  of  Abydos. 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  with  yellow  points  2,  Green  glaze 
1,  Gold  1. 

Collections.    Turin  8,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

147.  HEAD   OF   HORUS. 

Period.    Roman. 

Figures.     147a,  b,  blue-green  glaze. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

148.  ISIS   AND   HORUS. 

Name.     "  The  heir  and  Isis  "  (see  MacG.  60). 

Meaning.     The  protection  of  Isis. 

Varieties  and  Period.  A,  seated  on  ground,  Vlth  dynasty. 
B,  seated  on  throne.  XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  Type  A,  148a,  b,  steatite,  glazed,  with  geo- 
metrical patterns  below,  Vlth  dynasty.  B,  148c,  d,  e,  f,  g, 
g2,  g8,  g4,  blue  glaze;  148h,  j,  silver,  group  16;  148k, 
bronze ;  1481,  blue  and  black  glaze ;  148m  (pi.  xlvi),  bronze  ; 
148m  2,  bronze  ;  148m  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  green  glaze. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  19,  Blue  glaze  14,  Bronze  5, 
Silver  2,  Steatite  2,  Lazuli  1,  Agate  1,  Blue  glass  2,  Grey 
glaze  1. 

Collections.  St.  Petersburg  18,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  15,  E.  6, 
Turin  5,  Athens  2,  Murch  2. 

149.    ISIS. 

Period.     XVIII  to  Roman. 

Varieties.  A,  statuette.  B,  outline  on  plaque  (Hawara 
4,  pi.  1).  C,  bust. 

Figures.  Type  A,  149a,  bronze,  fringed  garment;  149b, 
dark  blue  glass,  orange  glass  crown ;  149c,  d,  dark  blue 
glass;  feet  of  d,  green  glass,  another  figure;  149e,  bright 
blue  glaze,  Ramesseum,  XXth  dynasty  (?) ;  149f,  gold,  group 
15,  Isis  or  Mut,  not  Neit  by  the  uraeus,  see  164  Mut ;  149g, 
silver,  group  15  ;  149h,  pewter  plate,  group  18  ;  149j,  glaze 
faded  white,  Hawara,  group  82 ;  149k,  gold,  Memphis, 
group  27  ;  1491,  blue  glaze  with  yellow  points,  Roman, 
group  22 ;  149m,  green-black  glaze,  possibly  Neit ;  149m  2, 
3,  4,  5,  green  glaze.  Type  C,  149n  (pi.  xlvi),  bronze. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  20,  Blue  glaze  18,  Grey  glaze  7, 
Lazuli  7,  Blue  glass  4,  Gold  3,  Silver  1,  Bronze  2,  Pewter  1, 
Brown  glaze  1. 

Position.  Throat  (1) ;  on  chest  in  row  of  gods  (13) ; 
stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Turin  22,  St.  Petersburg  17,  Univ.  Coll.  P. 
18,  E.  4,  Murch  2,  Athens  1. 

150.    ISIS   MOURNING. 

Meaning.     Protection  by  Isis. 

Varieties.     A,  kneeling  with  hand  raised.     B,  standing 
winged.     Both  as  a  pair  to  Nephthys. 
Period.    Ptolemaic. 
Figures.     Type  A,   160a,   b,   b  2,   gilt  wax,  Dendereh. 


group  20;  150c,  (d,  not  in  plate),  e,  green  and  black 
glaze,  Dendereh,  group  21 ;  150f,  blue  and  black  glaze, 
Dendereh,  21,  with  two  feathers  on  head,  as  149g.  Type  B, 
150g,  blue  and  black  glaze,  standing,  Dendereh,  21 ;  150h,' 
green  and  black  glaze,  Dendereh,  21. 

Materials.    Blue  or  green  glaze  5,  gilt  wax  8. 

Position.     Shoulders  and  chest  (4). 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  8. 

151.    ISIS   PHARIA. 

Name.  Isis  Pharia,  of  the  Pharos  at  Alexandria,  entirely 
of  Greek  origin. 

Meaning.  Protection  of  sailors ;  the  goddess  is  reclining 
in  a  barge  and  holding  a  steering  oar. 

Period.     Ptolemaic  and  Roman. 

Figures.  151a,  green  glaze  faded  brown  ;  151b,  violet- 
blue  glass;  181c  (xlvi),  pale  blue  glass,  on  back,  Uel ;  151d, 
coin  of  Gallienus,  showing  the  type  clearly. 

Material.  Green  glaze  1,  Violet  glass  1,  Pale  blue 
glass  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3. 

152.    ISIS,   NEBHAT,   AND  HORUS. 

Meaning.     The  goddesses  as  protectresses. 

Period.     XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures,  152a,  b,  green  glaze,  no  inscription,  loop  on 
back;  152b,  2,  3,  4,  green  glaze;  182c,  bronze,  the  right- 
hand  figure  has  the  hair  dressed  in  two  horns  as  Iflis, 
between  the  busts  is  a  minute  bust  of  Horus  crowned. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  49,  Blue  glaze  13,  Grey  glaze  4, 
Yellow  glaze  1,  Bronze  1. 

Position.  On  breast  (2) ;  along  with  large  zad,  or  line  of 
zad  amulets,  on  chest  or  stomach  (4) ;  on  thighs. 

Collections.  Alnwick  21,  St.  Petersburg  8,  Price  4,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  3,  E.  3. 

153.    GROUPS   OF  GODDESSES. 

Period.     XXVth  to  XXVIth  dynasties. 

Figures.  lS3a,  green  glaze,  Isis,  Hathor,  Mut,  Nebhat, 
Sekhmet ;  these  can  be  better  identified  on  a  blue-glazed 
pentad  found  at  Hawara  (Labyrinth,  xxxi);  15 3 a  2,  green 
glaze  Isis,  Bast  and  Hathor  (Edw.). 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  E.  1,  Manchester. 

154.    NEBHAT. 

Meaning.     Protection,  as  Nebhat  protected  Horus. 

Varieties.  A,  statuette.  B,  outline  on  plaque  (Hawara, 
4,  pi.  xlix). 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  154a,  green  glaze;  184b,  brown  glaze  (burnt); 
154c,  olive  glaze;  154d,  e,  blue  glaze;  184f,  olive  glaze; 
184g,  g  2,  green  glaze  faded,  Hawara;  154g,  8,  4,  green 
glaze;  184h  (pi.  xliii),  light  green  glaze,  inscribed  on  back, 
"  Nebhat  give  life  to  Nes  .  .  ." ;  184j  (pi.  xlv),  light  green 
glaze. 


F  2 


AMULETS     OF     HUMAN-HEADED     GODS 


Materials.  Green  glaze  2,  Grey  glaze  7,  Blue  glaze  6, 
Lazuli,  4,  Yellow  glaze  2,  Brown  glaze  1,  Blue  glass  1. 

Position.     Chest  (11);  stomach  1. 

Collections.  Turin  18,  St.  Petersburg  10,  Univ.  Coll. 
P.  8,  E.  2,  Murch  2,  Athens  1. 

155.    NEBHAT  MOURNING. 

Meaning.     Protection,  as  Nebhat  protected  Osiris. 
Period.    Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  155a,  gilt  wax,  Dendereh,  group  20;  155b, 
blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  group  21. 

Position.     With  No.  150,  Isis  mourning. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

156.    OSIRIS,    ISIS,    AND   HORUS. 

Meaning.  Protection  by  the  Triad.  Horus  always  in 
front,  and  Isis  behind. 

Period.     Ptolemaic  and  Eoman. 

Figures.  136a,  a  2,  gilt  wax,  Dendereh,  group  20;  156b, 
blue  and  black  glaze,  Dendereh,  group  21 ;  156c,  dark  blue 
and  black  glaze,  group  26 ;  136d,  black  steatite,  the  heart 
of  Osiris,  between  Isis  wearing  the  two  feathers,  and  Horus 
crowned,  with  the  club  in  his  hand ;  the  back  divided  into 
8  by  6  squares  ;  traces  of  Greek  cursive  writing  scratched 
on  the  ground  between  the  figures. 

Materials.     Blue  glaze  2,  Steatite  1,  Gilt  wax  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  4. 

157.    OSIRIS. 

Varieties.  A.  Standing  alone.  B.  Double  figures.  C. 
Osiris-Min.  D.  Osiris  and  mummy. 

Period     XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  157a,  a  2,  3,  4,  b,  b  2,  c,  c  2,  c  3,  bronze,  b  from 
Memphis  ;  157d,  gilt  wax,  Dendereh  ;  157e,  e  2,  blue  glass  ; 
157f,  green  glaze,  Dendereh,  group  21 ;  157g,  h  (pi.  xlv), 
wax. 

Materials.  Bronze  20,  Blue  glaze  5,  Green  glaze  1, 
Wax  3. 

Position.     Stomach  (1) ;  feet  (1). 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  8,  E.  5,  Turin  8  (B  and  C), 
Athens  4,  St.  Petersburg  3. 

158.    HEART   OF   OSIRIS. 

Meaning.  The  heart  of  the  god  supplied  to  the  deceased ; 
this  branched  into  the  idea  of  the  heart  scarab. 

Varieties.  A,  plain.  B,  with  shrine  and  scarab  on  front. 
C,  with  figures  of  gods. 

Period.     XVIII  to  Roman. 

Figures.  Type  B,  138a,  black -green  chlorite,  XVIIIth 
dynasty;  shrine  on  front,  Osiris  and  Ra  seated  at  the 
sides  ;  around  the  figure  six  lines  of  inscription,  beginning, 


"  Speech  of  the  Osirian  (an  official)  of  Amen,  Pa  Shedet, 
and  continuing  with  a  random  portion  of  the  usual  chapter 
of  the  heart,  xxx  B.  The  person  may  be  that  named  on 
a  Cairo  stele,  quoted  in  Lieblein,  Diet.,  657.  Type  A,  188b, 
black  steatite,  with  female  head,  XlXth  dynasty;  158c, 
alabaster ;  158d,  black  steatite ;  bennu  bird  on  front ;  on 
back  Asar  neb  zad,  "  Osiris  lord  of  Mendes  "  ;  158e,  brown 
steatite,  traces  of  shrine  on  front ;  158f,  white  quartz ;  158g, 
blue  and  black  glaze,  XlXth  dynasty;  188h,  bronze,  disc 
on  head,  Memphis.  Type  B,  158j,  black  steatite,  blue  paste 
inlay,  scarab  on  front.  Type  C,  138k,  bronze,  on  front, 
shrine,  disc,  scarab  with  wings,  two  gods  at  sides ;  1581, 
bronze,  two  uraei  head  dress ;  shrine  with  a  hawk  on  each 
corner  and  disc  above  it,  disc  and  uraei  below,  scarab 
winged  ;  six  figures  of  gods  at  sides ;  158m,  bronze,  shrine, 
winged  scarab,  on  back  lotus;  158n,  green  glaze,  shrine; 
158o,  bronze,  on  front  heart  amulet,  shrine  with  two  seated 
figures,  scarab,  at  sides  four  figures  with  raised  hands 
adoring,  two  seated  figures  below;  158p,  bronze,  shrine,  disc 
and  uraei,  scarab,  at  sides  two  figures  with  raised  hands ; 
158q,  mottled  black  and  white  steatite,  shrine,  winged  scarab 
with  disc ;  on  back  a  hawk  displayed  with  two  feather  fans; 
158r,  brown  pottery,  scarab  (?)  on  front,  Roman ;  158s, 
brown  pottery,  winged  scarab  and  disc,  shrine  below. 

Materials.  Bronze  7,  Steatite  5,  Pottery  2,  Alabaster  1, 
White  quartz  1,  Chalcedony  1,  Agate  1,  Blue  glaze  1,  Green 
glaze  3,  Chlorite  1,  Limestone  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  18,  Cairo  4,  Athens  2, 
Beck,  1. 

159.    ORACULAR   BUST. 

Name.  Hez  medu  Asar  (repeated  with  other  gods, 
Kheper,  Atum,  and  Ea)  LEPSIUS,  Denk.,  iii,  224  i. 

Meaning.  "  Illumination  by  speech  of  Osiris,"  or  of 
Kheper,  Atum,  or  Ra.  This  appears  to  show  that  the  bust 
was  an  oracle  of  the  god,  and  being  called  the  "illumination" 
or  "  clearing,"  it  may  be  connected  with  the  Semitic  oracular 
Urirn.  It  appears  on  a  stele,  adored  by  a  woman  making 
offerings  (MARIETTE,  Abydos,  ii,  60) ;  as  a  bust  between  two 
jackals  on  a  stele  (ROSELLINI,  Mon.  Civ.,  cxxxiv,  2);  and  as  a 
glazed  pottery  bust  at  Tell  Amarna  (Amarna,  xvii,  277 — 8). 
The  form  of  it,  a  head  and  chest  only,  would  accord  with 
the  idea  of  the  power  of  speaking. 

Period.     XVIII  to  XIX  dynasties. 

Figures.  159a,  wood,  XVII;  159b,  limestone,  XVIII 
(reduced  about  a  tenth);  159c,  d,  blue  glaze  with  black 
paint,  XVIIIth  dynasty ;  159e,  violet  glaze,  Tell  Amarna, 
XVIII ;  159f,  green  glaze,  faded,  XVIII ;  159f  2,  blue  glaze ; 
159g,  bronze,  with  arms  on  the  breast;  159h,  bronze,  flat 
behind  head,  as  if  fitted  against  a  surface,  with  bust  full 
thickness  below;  159j,  ivory  with  electrum  loop,  pre- 
historic ;  may  be  an  early  form  of  the  oracular  bust. 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  3,  Green  glaze  2,  Bronze  2,  Violet 
glaze  1,  Limestone  1,  Ivory  1,  Woodl. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  9,  E.  1,  Turin  1  (1231). 


36 


AMULETS     OF     HUMAN-HEADED     GODS 


160.    HORUS  AND  MIN. 

Name.    Min  is  named  "  Horus,  son  of  Isis  of  Koptos  " 
(L/ANz.,  Diz.  Mit.,  xvii). 
Period.    XXVI  (?). 
Figure.     160,  bronze. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P. 

161.    MIN. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Roman  (?). 

Figures.  161a,  bronze,  Memphis  ;  161b,  c,  c  2,  d,  bronze ; 
161e,  f,  f  2,  g,  green  glaze  ;  161h,  green  glaze,  Dendereh, 
group  21 ;  161J,  green  glaze,  with  yellow  points,  group  23, 
Roman  ;  161k,  grey  steatite,  part  of  a  tablet,  Min  and  heads 
of  Hathor;  on  back,  winged  disc  and  uraei,  "  Ra,"  two  vzat 
eyes,  etc. 

Materials.     Green  glaze  32,  Bronze  5,  Steatite  1,  Wood  1. 

Position.     Chest  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  21,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  9,  E.  2,  St.  Peters- 
burg 4,  Turin  2. 

162.    AMEN. 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  162a,  a  2,  bronze  ;  1621),  light  blue  glaze  ;  162c, 
blue  plaque;  162d,  light  green  head. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  5,  Blue  glaze  2,  Bronze  4,  Gold 
1,  Silver  1,  Granite  1. 

Collections.     Turin  5,  Cairo  4,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  E.  1. 

168.    AMEN,    MUT   AND   KHONSU. 

Period.    XVIII. 
Figure.    163,  dark  blue  glaze. 
Materials.     Green  glaze  1,  Blue  glaze  1. 
Collections.     Turin  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

164.    MUT. 

Period.     XXVI(?). 

Figures.  164a,  blue  glaze;  16$b,  bronze;  164b  2, 
pewter,  b  3,  4,  5,  blue  glaze;  16$c,  silver,  group  16  :  164d 
(pi.  xlv),  violet  glaze,  Rifeh,  XlXth  dynasty;  16$e,  apple- 
green  glaze  (xlvii) ;  164f,  head  on  cylinder,  blue  glaze 
(xlvii). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  4,  Silver  2,  Bronze  2,  Blue 
glaze  5,  Pewter  1. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  E.  5,  Turin  3,  Cairo  2. 

165.  KHONSU. 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.    168a,  bronze;  165b,  green  glaze  (pi.  xxxi). 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

166.  ANHUR. 

Period.     XXVI  (?). 

Figure.     166,  bronze. 

Materials.    Bronze  1,  Green  glaze  1. 

Collections.    Cairo  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 


167.    SHU. 

Period.    XII,  XXX. 

Figures.  167a,  silver,  hollow;  167b,  carnelian,  both 
Xllth  dynasty  (?);  16c,  d,  e,  f,  light  blue  glaze;  167e  2, 
8,  4,  5,  6,  green  glaze. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  65,  Blue  glaze  7,  Grey  glaze  6, 
Bronze  2,  Silver  1,  Carnelian  1,  Yellow  glaze  1. 

Position.     Chest  (2) ;  stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  83,  Turin  22,  St.  Petersburg  14,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  6,  E.  5,  Murch  1. 

168.    NEIT. 

Varieties.     A,  standing.     B,  suckling  two  crocodiles. 

Period.     XXVI  to  XXX. 

Figures.  A,  168a,  pewter  plate.  B,  168b,  light  blue 
glaze,  Neit  suckling  two  crocodiles  (see  LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit., 
clxxv).  Seated  figure  (see  MacG.  75);  168c,  lazuli  (xlvii). 

Materials.  Lazuli  7,  Green  glaze  3,  Blue  glaze  3, 
pewter  1. 

Position.     Chest  (5). 

Collections.  Cairo  3  (2  B),  St.  Petersburg  3,  Univ.  Coll. 
P.  2,  E.  1,  Turin  1,  Murch  1. 

109.    UNKNOWN  DIVINITIES. 

Period.     Ptolemaic  to  Roman. 

Figures.  169a,  bronze,  female  in  Greek  chiton  with  hands 
advanced,  on  the  back  of  the  head  the  face  of  a  bear ; 
possibly  Artemis  Brauronia  ;  169b,  blue  glaze  with  yellow 
points,  Roman,  squatting  female ;  169c,  blue  glass,  female 
holding  breasts,  Syrian  influence  (?) ;  169d  (pi.  xxxi),  male 
figure  green  glaza  with  yellow  points,  Roman  ;  169e,  squat- 
ting female,  dark  blue  glaze  (pi.  xlvi);  169f,  squatting 
female,  blue  glaze  with  yellow  points  (pi.  xlvi). 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  with  yellow  points  2,  Green  glaze 
with  yellow  points  1,  Dark  blue  glaze  1,  Blue  glass  1, 
Bronze  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  6. 

170.    IIATHOR. 

Name.  "  The  habitation  of  Horus,"  apparently  the 
mother  of  one  of  the  forms  of  Horus,  distinct  from  the  Isis 
tradition.  Especially  venerated  as  the  Mother  Goddess. 

Varieties.     A,  standing.     B,  seated. 

Period.     1st  to  XXXth  dynasty. 

Figures.  Type  A,  170a,  gold,  group  15;  170b,  silver, 
group  16  ;  170c,  c  2  (pi.  xliii),  bone,  group  5,  Vlth  dynasty  ; 
170d,  gold,  Hathor  and  zad,  group  4,  Vlth  dynasty.  Type 
B  (pi.  xxvii),  170e,  e2,  f,  f2,  carnelian,  e8,  porphyry; 
170g,  g2,  carnelian;  h,  h2,  h  3,  carnelian,  porphyry, 
XVIIIth  dynasty  ;  rudely  cut  open  work.  Hawara.  These 
figures  all  have  long  hair,  and  appear  to  be  female  ; 
they  have  a  crescent  and  disc  on  the  head,  probably  Hathor ; 
they  appear  to  be  engaged  in  forming  the  body  of  the 
deceased  person  for  future  life,  in  the  attitude  of  the 


37 


AMULETS     OF     HUMAN-HEADED     GODS 


Khnumu  creative  figures,  as  LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  cccxxxvi,  8. 
Perhaps,  therefore,  they  are  the  seven  Hathors  who  create  a 
person.  170j,  hronze  (xlvi). 

Materials.  Carnelian  4,  Blue  glass  4,  Porphyry  2,  Gold 
2,  Silver  1,  Bone  2,  Bronze  1,  Limestone  1. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  15,  E.  1,  Murch  2. 


171.    HEAD  OF  HATHOR. 

Name.    Her  ne  pot,  "  human  faced  "  (LACAU,  84). 

Varieties.  The  head  of  Hathor  appears  worn  by  King 
Narmer  upon  his  waist  cloth  ;  also  later  with  a  straight 
wig,  and  with  curling  ends  to  the  wig.  As  an  amulet,  it 
appears  on  the  neck  of  the  sacred  Aht  cow  (LANZ,  Diz. 
Mit.,  1). 

Period.  I  to  XXX.  Apparently  also  prehistoric  (Naqada, 
Ixiv,  94). 

Figures,  ilia,  b,  gold,  XVIIIth  dynasty;  171c,  grey- 
green  glaze,  XXXth  dynasty  (?);  171d,  bine  glaze,  XVIIIth 
dynasty;  171e,  apple-green  glaze,  piece  of  large  disc, 
XXVIth  dynasty;  171f,  blue  glaze;  f2,  blue  paste, 
XVIIIth  dynasty  ;  171g  (pi.  xlv),  blue  glaze,  Illahun, 
XXIInd  dynasty. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  8,  Blue  glaze  8,  Yellow  glaze  2, 
Gold  2,  Blue  paste  1,  Black  glaze  1,  Grey  glaze  1,  Blue 
glass  1  (Naqada),  Lazuli  plaque  1. 

Collection*.  Turin  10,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  7,  Murch  2,  St. 
Petersburg  1. 

172.    MlOT. 

Meaning.  Impersonation  of  Truth,  not  worshipped  as  a 
divinity. 

Varieties.     A,  seated.     B,  winged. 

Figure.     172,  Lazuli. 

Materials.     Lazuli  10,  Green  glaze  1,  Red  glass  1. 

Position.     Throat  (1)  ;  chest  (6). 

Collections.  Cairo  6,  St.  Petersburg  2,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1, 
Athens  1. 

173.    HATMEHYT. 

Name.  Hatmehyt  the  goddess  of  Mendes,  wearing  the 
sacred  fish  of  Mendes.  (See  No.  2S5.) 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  173a,  apple  green  glaze;  173b,  dull  green 
glaze,  blundered  inscriptions  on  the  back  of  each. 

Collections.     Cairo  5  (glazed),  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 


174.    SELKET. 

Period.     XXVI  to  XXX. 

Material.     Lazuli  14,  Schist  1. 

Position.     Throat  (1) ;  chest  (8). 

Collections.     Cairo  11,  St.  Petersburg  2,  Univ.  Coll.  E.  2. 


175.    NEFERTUM. 

Varieties.     A,  standing  alone.     B,  standing  on  a  lion. 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  Type  A,  175a,  violet  glaze,  no  back  pillar; 
175a2,  blue  glaze;  175b,  green  glaze,  on  back  pillar, 
"  Speech  of  Nefertum,  son  of  Sekhmet,  giving  life,  lady 
of  .  .  .";  175b  2,  bronze,  b  3,  green  glaze  (xlvi) ;  175c, 
bronze;  175d,  light  blue  glaze;  175e,  silver,  group  17, 
Memphis.  Type  B,  178f,  light  green  glaze.  A,  175g  2, 
light  green  glaze,  g3  laiuli,  very  rude.  (See  also  131c.) 

Materials.  Green  glaze  1  B,  Blue  glaze  8,  Bronze  5, 
Silver  4,  Violet  glaze  1,  Yellow  glaze  1,  Lazuli  1. 

Collections.  Cairo  16  and  3  B,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  6  and  1  B, 
E.  5,  Turin  4,  St.  Petersburg  3  and  IB. 

176.    PTAH   SEKER. 

Name  and  Meaning.  Ptah,  god  of  the  dynastic  race  at 
Memphis,  united  with  Seker  of  Saqqareh,  the  primitive 
god  of  the  dead,  or  of  "  silence  "  ;  like  Mertseker,  "  lover  of 
silence,"  the  goddess  of  the  Theban  necropolis. 

Varieties.  A,  alone.  B,  backed  by  gods  on  a  plaque. 
C,  double. 

Period.    XVIII  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  176a,  b,  black  and  white  porphyry,  XVIIIth 
dynasty ;  1 76c,  blue  glaze,  XVIII ;  1 76d,  green  glaze,  XVIII ; 
176e,  green  glaze,  side  view,  XIX  ;  176f,  blue  glaze,  with 
scarab  on  head,  XXII ;  176g,  blue  glaze,  crowned,  Illahun, 
XXII ;  176h,  h2,  green  glaze,  XXVI;  176j,  j  2,  burnt  green 
glaze ;  176k,  green  glaze ;  1761,  1,  2,  8,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 
burnt  green  glaze  ;  176m,  bronze,  solid  casting  with  raised 
figure;  176n,  blue  glaze,  eating  serpents  (xlvi);  176o, 
(xlvii),  green  glaze ;  176p  (xlvi),  green  glaze,  Bast  with 
spread  wings  behind,  Illahun,  XXIII. 

Materials.  A,  Green  glaze  55,  Blue  glaze  15,  Yellow 
glaze  2,  Porphyry  2,  Quartz  crystal  1,  Syenite  1,  Carnelian  1, 
Bronze  1,  Ivory  1.  B,  Green  glaze  8.  C,  Blue  glaze  2. 

Collections.  A,  Cairo  21,  St.  Petersburg  12,  Univ.  Coll. 
P.  12,  E.  12,  Turin  10,  Murch  4.  B,  Turin  5,  St.  Peters- 
burg 2 ;  backed  by  Bast,  Illahun,  Univ.  Coll.  E.  C,  St. 
Petersburg;  triple,  Cairo. 

177.    PTAH. 

Period.    XXVI  to  XXX. 

Figures.  177a,  bronze;  177b,  b2,  green  glaze;  177c, 
bright  green  glaze,  Memphis;  177d,  schist,  Illahnn 
(xlvii). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  15,  Blue  glaze  5,  White  glaze  1, 
Gold  1,  Bronze  2. 

Collections.  Cairo  14,  Turin,  4,  St.  Petersburg  4,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  3,  E.  2. 

178.    DWARF. 

Meaning.     Compare  the  gobbo  in  Italy. 
Period.    Roman. 


38 


AMULETS     OF     HUMAN-HEADED    GODS 


Figures.     178a,  lazuli,  fine  work;  179b,  yellow  glass. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

179.    SAINTS. 

Meaning.     Protection  by  saints. 
Period.     Third  century  A.D.  to  Coptic. 
Figures.     179a,  bronze;  179b,  bronze;  179c,  lead,  figure 
with  nimbus  in  middle,  on  each  side  a  figure  adoring  ;  179d 


(pi.  xlv),  lead,  horseman  with  nimbus,  and  spear  in  hand 
striking  a  kneeling  figure  below,  crescent  above ;  reverse, 
traces  of  six  lines  of  inscription  ;  179e,  lead,  figure  holding 
long  cross,  another  with  arms  raised  ;  reverse  Eis  theOs  ho 
boethon,  "In  God  is  help";  179f  (pi.  xlvi),  amber-yellow 
glass,  Jonah  asleep  under  the  gourd,  ship  in  the  back- 
ground ;  this  class  of  yellow  glass  pendant  is  dated  to  about 
250  A.D.  by  heads  of  Philip  and  Otacilia.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  6. 


CHAPTER    VIII 
AMULETS    OF    ANIMAL-HEADED    GODS 

THEOPHORIC  AMULETS,  180 — 208. 


THE  primitive  animal  worships  of  the  Egyptian  nomes 
may  well  have  had  a  totemistic  basis — though  that  is 
questioned.  There  is  no  doubt  that  they  largely  modified 
the  ideal  of  anthropomorphic  gods  which  probably  came 
in  with  the  Libyan  race  at  the  beginning  of  the  prehistoric 
civilisation.  The  two  different  ideals  were  reconciled, 
like  the  different  races,  by  fusion.  The  human  figures 
acquired  the  animal  heads ;  and  in  no  point  is  the  artistic 
skill  of  the  Egyptian  shown  better  than  in  the  facile 
union  of  such  incongruous  subjects  as  the  ibis  or  snake 
with  the  man.  Each  stock  of  the  mixed  race  clung  to  its 
own  beliefs,  and  down  to  Roman  times  the  animal-headed 
gods  were  as  much  venerated  as  any  others. 

180.    HORUS. 

It  is  difficult  to  separate  between  the  figures  of  the  gods 
Horus  and  Ra,  who  were  so  intimately  blended.  The  only 
practical  course,  where  no  inscription  exists,  is  to  class 
plain  hawk-headed  figures  as  Horus,  and  those  with  the 
disc  of  the  sun  upon  the  head  as  Ra. 

Varieties.  A,  striking  with  a  spear,  Ilor-merti  (see 
inscrip.  Cairo,  38618).  B,  hawk-headed,  wearing  double 
crown.  C,  seated,  no  head-dress.  D,  lion-headed,  Hur- 
akhti  (LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  625).  E,  on  crocodiles. 

Period.     XVIII  to  Roman. 

Figures.  Type  A,  180a,  bronze.  B,  180b,  ebony ; 
180c,  bronze;  180d,  e,  green  glaze,  and  f,  Hawara 
(pi.  xlv);  180d,  2,  3,  light  blue  glaze;  180g,  pewter 
plate,  group  18;  180h,  green  glaze;  180j,  blue  glaze, 
Dendereh,  group  21 ;  180k,  green  glaze,  classed  as  Hor- 
behudti  in  Cairo  catalogue ;  1801,  blue  glass ;  180rn,  blue 
glaze,  mummiform,  perhaps  Kebhsenuf,  son  of  Horus 
(see  182);  180n,  lazuli,  perhaps  Kebhsenuf  (pi.  xlv), 
group  28  ;  180o,  o  2,  blue  glaze,  probably  Kebhsenuf  (182); 
and  180o  3,  steatite,  but  no  fellow  figures  are  known  of  the 
other  genii.  Type  D,  180p  (pi.  xxiii),  blue  glaze,  yellow 
points,  Roman  ;  Horus  of  the  eastern  and  of  the  western 
horizons  hand  in  hand.  Type  E,  180q,  green  glaze. 


Materials.  Green  glaze  54,  Blue  glaze  9,  Yellow  glaze  6, 
Grey  glaze  4,  Red  glaze  1,  Lazuli  5,  Blue  glass  2,  Bronze  2, 
Pewter  1,  Ebony  1.  Type  G,  Green  felspar  or  prase  10. 
Type  D,  blue  glaze  with  yellow  points  7  (4  at  St.  Petersburg). 

Position.    In  main  row  of  gods  on  chest  (10);  stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  40,  Turin  24,  St.  Petersburg  18,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  13,  E.  2. 

181.    11  A. 

Varieties.  A,  standing,  or  B,  seated ;  always  hawk- 
headed  with  disc. 

Period.    XXVI  to  XXX. 

Figures.  181a,  bronze;  181a  2,  green  glaze,  small,  a  3, 
alabaster,  small ;  181b,  bronze,  having  a  crescent  below  the 
disc  it  appears  to  be  Ra-Khonsu ;  with  the  crescent  the  god 
is  named  as  Khonsu,  never  as  Ra ;  but  this  is  Ra-Khonsu, 
as  Khonsu  strictly  is  human-headed  with  the  youthful  lock 
of  hair;  181c,  c  2,  olive-green  glaze  ;  181c  3 — 7,  blue  glaze; 
181d  (pi.  xlv),  green  glaze  faded,  Hawara ;  181e  (pi.  xlv), 
shell,  Illahun,  XXIInd  dynasty;  181f,  apple-green  glaze 
plaque,  holding  the  IMS  sceptre,  and  called  Hor-mer-tef 
(L.4NZ.,  Dw.  Mtf.,  xvii) ;  181  g,  white  gliss;  181h,  blue  glaze, 
Ra  in  his  boat  adored  by  the  baboons,  XVlIIth  dynasty. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  28,  Blue  glaze  12,  Yellow  glaze  2, 
Grey  glaze  5,  Lazuli  1,  Bronze  2,  White  glass  1. 

Position.     In  the  row  of  gods  on  the  chest  (6) ;  throat  (1). 

Collections.  Turin  16,  Cairo  14,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  7,  E.  9, 
St.  Petersburg  7,  Athens  1,  Murch  1. 

182.    FOUR  SONS   OF  RA. 

Names.  Amset,  human  head  ;  Hapy,  baboon  head  ;  Duat 
mutef,  jackal  head  ;  Kebhsenuf,  hawk  head. 

Meanings.  Amset  or  Mestha,  probably  the  "  statue  "  or 
image.  Hapy,  perhaps  Hapy  the  bull  god  of  Memphis,  who 
presided  over  the  great  cemetery  of  Memphis.  Duat  mutef, 
"  the  underworld  is  his  mother."  Kebhsenuf,  "  Coolness  is 
his  brother."  Each  son  protected  one  part  of  the  body ; 
Amset  the  stomach  and  large  intestines,  Hapy  the  small 


39 


AMULETS     OF     ANIMAL-HEADED     GODS 


intestines,  Duat  mutef  the  lungs  and  heart,  Kebhsenuf  the 
liver  and  gall.  The  four  are  often  shown  standing  together 
on  a  lotus  flower  before  Osiris. 

Varieties.  Execute!  in  all  kinds  of  material,  metals, 
wax,  pottery,  vegetable  paste,  bead-work,  etc. 

Period.  XXIII  to  Eoman.  (On  tops  of  jars  from  Xllth 
dynasty,  but  all  human -headed.) 

Figures.  182a,  gold;  182b,  pewter,  group  18 ;  182c,  gilt 
wax;  182d,  red  pottery;  182e,  e  2,  blue  glaze  with  red 
paint,  with  winged  scarab;  182f,  green  glaze,  with  applied 
blue;  182g,  wax;  182h,  white  and  red  glass;  182j,  red 
glass;  182k,  blue  glaze;  1821,  dark  blue  glaze,  with  black 
heads,  also  with  scarab  and  girdle  tie;  182  12,  Duat  ruutef, 
blue  glazed  schist;  182m,  blue  glaze;  182n,  black  wax; 
182o,  black  clay,  with  blue  paint  on  heads;  182p,  green 
glaze ;  182q,  blue  glaze,  with  black  paint,  Dendereh, 
Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  182r  (pi.  xxxiii),  blue  glaze  on  one 
plaque,  Dendereh,  group  21  and  see  93f,  g  (pi.  xi.) 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  40,  Green  glaze  11,  Wax  9,  Clay  8, 
Pewter  6,  Green  glass  6,  Red  glass  5,  Blue  glass  4,  Pottery 
4,  Gold  2,  White  glass  1,  Wood  1. 

Position.  Usually  in  two  pairs  facing,  on  the  chest  (9)  or 
stomach  (2),  below  the  winged  scarab. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  49  (others  in  funerary 
section),  Turin  27,  St.  Petersburg  7,  Murch  4. 

183.    SET. 

Period.  XXVI  ('?).  Extremely  rare  as  an  amulet,  as  well 
as  in  larger  figures. 

Figure.  183,  bronze,  wearing  double  crown,  the  upright 
ears  shown  on  either  side. 

Materials.     Bronze  1,  Blue  glaze  1,  Red  wood  1. 

Collections.     Cairo  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  Turin  1. 

181.    SPHINX,   MALE. 

Period.     VI,  XVIII,  XXVI. 

Figures.  IS^a,  brown  limestone,  fine  work,  XVIIIth 
dynasty;  18$b,  green  glazs,  of  Graeco- Assyrian  style  ;  also 
18§a  2,  lazuli,  of  Rainessu  II;  18$a  3,  blue  paste,  of 
Sety  II. 

Materials.  Green  felspar  4,  Amethyst  2,  Lazuli  2, 
Carnelian  1,  Limestone  1,  Green  glaze  1,  Blue  paste  1. 

Collections.     Murch  8,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Athens  1. 

185.    SPHINX,   FEMALE. 

Varieties.    A,  bird  body.     B,  cat  body. 

Period.     VI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  A,  185a — d,  bone,  possibly  intended  for  a 
human-headed  vulture  of  the  goddess  Mut,  group  18.  Type 
B,  185e,  f,  f  2,  green  felspar,  apparently  a  cat  body,  group 
30;  185g,  h,  carnelian,  group  14  ;  18SJ,  green  glaze  faded, 
Memphis,  XXIIIth  dynasty  by  the  form  of  hair  ;  185k,  k  2, 
1,  green  glaze,  black  hair,  XXVI ;  185m,  green  and  black 
glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic ;  185m  2,  yellow  glass,  small. 


Materials.  Green  felspar  28,  Amethyst  4,  Carnelian  2, 
Bone  4,  Green  glaze  5,  Lazuli  1,  Yellow  glass  1. 

Collections.  Murch  25,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  18(  E.  2,  St. 
Petersburg  1. 

186.    HATHOR  COW-HEADED. 

Period.     XVIII  to  XXVI. 

Figures.     186a,    dark   blue   glaze,    XVIII;    186b,   light 
green  glaze,  XXVI;  186c,  d  (pi.  xlv),  green  glass,  burnt. 
Materials.     Green  glaze  2,  Blue  glaze  2,  Green  glass  2. 
Position.     Throat  (1) ;  chest  (1). 
Collections.     Cairo  2,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  4.    (See  also  210.) 

187.    KHNUMU. 

Meaning.  The  Creator,  popular  in  late  times  as 
Khnouphis. 

Varieties.  A,  statuette.  B,  outline  on  plaque  (Hawara 
4,  pi.  1). 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  Type  A,  187a,  bronze;  187b,  dark  green  glaze  ; 
187c,  coarse  green  glaze  ;  187d,  red  glaze  (?  burnt  green); 
187e,  f,  f  2,  Hawara,  group  32,  f  3,  g,  all  green  glaze. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  46,  Blue  glaze  8,  Yellow  glaze  3, 
Grey  glaze  3,  Red-grey  glaze  7,  Red  glaze  1,  Carnelian  1, 
Bronze  1,  Blue  paste  1. 

Position.     In  row  of  gods  on  chest  (4) ;  stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  30,  Turin  20,  St.  Petersburg  11,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  8,  E.  1,  Murch  1. 

188.    BBS   OR   BESA. 

Name.     Besa,  the  native  name  of  Cynaelurus  guttatus. 

Meaning.     The  god  of  children,  of  dance  and  games. 

Varieties.     Dealt  with  under  189,  190. 

Period.     XVIII  to  Roman. 

Figures.  PI.  xxxiv,  188a,  b,  gold,  XVIII ;  188c,  red  paste, 
Tell  Amarna,  XVIII.  PI.  xxxiii,  188d,  schist,  dark  green 
glaze,  XVI II;  188e,  dark  blue  glaze,  XVIII;  188e  2,  blue 
glaze;  188f,  steatite, XIX (?);  188g,  silver,  XIX (?),  head-dress 
very  high  ;  188h,  white  schist ;  188h2,  blue  glaze,  larger; 
188j,j2,  green  glaze;  188k,  dark  blue  glaze  with  yellow 
points,  Roman  ;  1881,  light  blue,  similar  ;  188m,  green,  n, 
o,  p,  blue,  with  yellow  points,  Roman  ;  188q,  bronze  ;  188r, 
bright  blue,  XX(?);  188s,  dark  green,  thin,  XVIII;  188t,  light 
blue  glaze,  Memphis ;  188u,  light  green  glaze;  1 88 v,  grey 
glaze;  188w,  w  2,  green  gone  brown,  blue  and  yellow 
applied,  Roman;  188x,  dark  violet  glass,  seated;  188y, 
light  green,  seated;  188z,  green  gone  grey,  with  yellow 
points,  Roman,  Bes  under  archway  with  two  columns ; 
188aa,  ab,  blue  glass  impressed  ;  188ac,  violet  glaze,  XVIII. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  52,  Blue  glaze  46,  Blue  or  green 
with  yellow  points  7,  Red  glaze  2,  Grey  glaze  4,  Blue  glass 
3,  Green  glass  1,  Gold  4,  Silver  1,  Bronze  4,  Carnelian  2, 
oteatite  2,  Schist  1,  Violet  glaze  1. 


40 


AMULETS    OF    ANIMAL-HEADED    GODS 


Collections.  Cairo  59,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  27,  E.  9,  Turin  18 
Alnwick  18,  Murch  8. 

189.    BBS.  UNUSUAL  FORMS. 

Varieties.  A,  profile  holding  sa,  for  protection.  B, 
dancing  in  profile  with  tambourine.  C,  front  face  between 
two  in  profile  dancing.  D,  with  lyre.  E,  armed.  F,  with 
cylinder  on  head.  G,  winged,  holding  uzats.  H,  with  two 
uraei.  J,  masculine  and  feminine.  K,  feminine,  Beset.  L, 
quadruple.  M,  as  sphinx.  N,  between  two  Taurts. 

Period.    XVIII  to  Eoman. 

figures.  Type  A,  189a,  blue  glaze,  holding  sa  before 
him,  the  other  hand  holding  the  tail  of  the  skin,  XVIII. 
Type  B,  189b,  blue  glaze.  Type  C,  189c,  violet  glaze, 
XVIII.  Type  D  (see  Cairo).  Type  E,  189d,  faded  blue 
glaze,  yellow  points,  Eoman  ;  189e,  blue  glaze,  Eoman  (type 
common  in  household  pottery  amulets).  Type  F  (see 
Turin).  Type  G,  189f,  violet  glaze,  XVIII.  Type  H,  189g, 
blue  glaze,  Eoman.  Type  J,  189h,  blue  glaze,  yellow 
points,  Eoman.  Type  K  (only  in  household  pottery 
amulets).  Type  L,  189j,  light  blue  glaze,  a  double  figure 
with  four  heads.  Type  M,  189k,  glaze  faded  white,  figure 
on  top,  and  central  figure  missing,  XXVI. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  14,  Blue  glaze  15,  Blue  with 
yellow  points  2,  Yellow  glaze  8. 

Position.    Necklaces,  especially  of  children. 

Collections.  A,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1.  B,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  St. 
Petersburg  1.  C,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1.  D,  Cairo  3.  E,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  2,  Cairo  1.  F,  Turin  1.  G,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1.  H, 
Univ.  Coll.  P.  1.  J,  Turin  1,  Cairo  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1.  K, 
Turin  4.  L,  Cairo  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  Turin  1.  M,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  1.  N,  Turin  6,  St.  Petersburg  1. 

190.    BBS  HEAD. 

Varieties.  A,  alone.  B,  on  plaque.  C,  on  uzat.  D,  on 
disc. 

Period.    XXIII  (?)  to  Eoman. 

Figures.  Type  A,  190a,  light  green,  probably  part  of  a 
figure ;  190b,  light  green  glaze ;  190b  2,  violet  glaze,  large  ; 
190c,  d,  d2,  blue  glaze,  XXIII;  190e,  yellow  and  brown 
glaze;  190f,  green  glaze,  part  of  a  figure;  190g,  blue  glaze, 
faded;  190h,  violet  glass,  Eoman;  190j,  clear  white  glass, 
Eoman  ;  190k,  green  glaze ;  190k,  2,  3,  green  glaze,  small, 
Naukratis;  1901,  blue  glaze,  Memphis ;  190m,  blue  glaze, 
Eoman.  Type  B,  190n,  plaque  of  schist,  both  sides  shown. 
Type  C,  190o,  blue  glaze,  lotus  on  back ;  190p,  green 
glaze.  Type  D,  190q,  glaze  burnt  black,  reverse  shown 
below  ;  190q  2,  blue  glaze;  190q  3,  green  glaze,  pierced ; 
190r,  light  green  glaze,  reverse  uzat  eye ;  190s,  pottery 
mould,  Memphis.  A,  190t  (pi.  xlvi)  green  glaze;  190u, 
blue  paste  with  four- winged  Bes  straddling  on  the  base. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  11,  Blue  glaze  9,  Yellow  glaze  3, 
Limestone  1,  Violet  glass  1,  Clear  glass  1,  Blue  paste  1, 
Violet  glaze  1. 


Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  20,  E.  6,  Turin  4,  Murch  2, 
bt.  Petersburg  1. 

191.    TAHUTI  OF  PANEBES. 

Name.    "  Tahuti  of  Panebes  in  Nubia"  (LANZ.,  Diz  Mit 
cccciv),  probably  known    as  the  deity    of   the  malachite1 
mines  there  (B.  D.  G.  885). 

Period.    XXVII  (?). 

Figure.     191,  light  blue  glaze,  good  sharp  work. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

192.    MAKES. 

Name.     Mda-Jtes,  "  the  striking  lion." 

Period.     XXVI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  192a,  bronze,  with  atef  crown  on  head;  192b, 
b  2,  8,  4,  c,  light  green  glaze ;  192d,  violet  glass  ;  192e  (pi. 
xxxix),  light  blue  glaze,  Mahes  (?)  holding  two  lions  (?). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  23,  Blue  glaze  8,  Bronze  8,  Blue 
glass  2. 

Collections.  Cairo  15,  St.  Petersburg  6,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  5, 
E.  3,  Turin  2,  Athens  2. 

193.  ANHUR   AND    TEFNUT. 

These  deities  are  associated  on  a  group  in  the  Louvre, 
(LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  77). 
Period.     XVIII. 
Figures.     193a,  b,  blue  glaze. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

194.  SEKHMET  OR   BASTET. 

Many  figures  cannot  be  separated  between  these  two  lion- 
or  cat-headed  goddesses,  so  they  are  here  classed  together. 

Period.    XVIII  to  XXX. 

Figures.  194a,  blue  glaze,  faded,  the  dress  suggests  a 
male  god,  but  the  head  is  exactly  like  those  of  the  goddesses 
(see  Cairo  38,587) ;  194b,  bronze,  holding  sistrum,  basket, 
and  aegis,  certainly  Bastet ;  194c,  blue  paste,  on  back 
"Speech  of  Bast  .  .  .";  194d,  green  glaze;  194e,  silver, 
group  16  (see  pi.  xxxvi) ;  1 94f ,  g,  blue  glaze,  XIX  (?),  Sekhmet, 
by  disc  on  head ;  194h,  blue  glaze,  Illahun,  XXII ;  194h  2, 
green  glaze  ;  194j,  k,  1,  light  green  glaze  ;  19411  (pi.  xlvi) ; 
11  2,  8,  4,  5,  6,  7,  blue  glaze;  194m,  light  blue  glaze  ;  194n, 
schist,  figure  of  Sekhmefc,  probably  part  of  a  menat ;  reverse, 
Nehebka  and  other  figures,  see  below ;  194o,  alabaster, 
tapering  body  and  legs,  Saft ;  194p,  dark  blue  glaze,  female 
kneeling,  offering  to  Bastet,  name  twice  on  back,  see  below ; 
194q,  blue  glaze,  Eamesseura.  On  pi.  xlv,  194r,  blue  faded, 
Sekhmet,  Memphis;  194s,  bronze,  with  double  crown; 
194t,  wood,  XXII,  Illahun.  On  xlvi,  194u,  green  glazed, 
seated  ;  194v,  head  on  a  pillar,  blue  glaze  (xlvii). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  48,  Blue  glaze  86,  Grey  glaze  8, 
Silver  1,  Bronze  2,  Electrum  1,  Schist  1,  Blue  paste  1, 
Gypsum  1,  Alabaster  2,  Wood  1. 


41 


AMULETS     OF     ANIMAL-HEADED     GODS 


Collections.  Cairo  86,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  16,  E.  8,  Turin  20, 
St.  Petersburg  17,  Murch  1. 

195.    AEGIS  OF  BASTET  (AND  MUT  ?). 

This  is  in  form  of  a  deep  collar  of  beadwork,  usually 
surmounted  by  a  lion's  head  ;  it  has  a  menat  attached  to  it 
at  right  angles  behind  (see  the  socket  of  198a),  and  it  is 
carried  by  the  menat  in  the  left  hand  of  Bastet.  The  name 
and  meaning  of  it  are  unknown. 

Period.    XXII  to  XXVI. 

Figures.  195a,  bronze,  front  and  back  of  both  aegis  and 
menat ;  195b,  b  2,  blue  glaze,  faded  white ;  195c,  blue 
glaze,  side  view  of  head,  with  Nehebka,  uraeus  and  uzat ; 
reverse,  collar;  195d,  green  glaze  with  yellow  lines, 
Koman  ;  195e  (pi.  xlv),  silver  gilt;  195f,  silver;  19Sg,  g2, 
blue  glaze,  head  of  Mut  (?),  Illahun,  XXII ;  195h,  bronze, 
female  head;  198j,  blue  glaze,  head  of  Mut  (?) ;  193k,  1, 
bronze,  female  head  with  disc  and  horns,  Isis  (?);  198m,  n, 
bronze,  lion  head. 

Materials,  as  above,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  13,  E.  2,  St.  Petersburg 
1,  green  glaze. 

196.    SHU  AND  TEFNUT. 

The  heads  of  these  twin  deities  are  often  figured  at  the 
top  of  a  menat  of  bronze. 

Period,    XXVI. 

Figures.  196a,  bronze,  inscribed  "  To  Shu  and  Tefnut. 
Thapa,  son  of  Duaha,  born  of  Kare-za  "  ;  the  name  Thapa, 
after  the  hippopotamus  goddess  Apit,  belongs  to  the  XlXth 
dynasty  (LiEB.,  Diet.,  760) ;  Duaha,  called  after  the  moon 
god,  suggests  the  XXVIth  dynasty ;  and  Kareza,  "  son  of 
the  Karian,"  points  also  to  the  Early  Greek  age  (L.,  Diet., 
2396);  196b,  bronze;  196b2,  bronze.  At  St.  Petersburg, 
1  of  bronze  with  lion  head. 

197.    ANPU. 

Meaning.  Anpu,  Anubis,  was  the  protector  of  the  dead, 
the  god  of  the  cemetery  frequented  by  the  jackals. 

Period.     XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  197a,  b,  c,  d,  bronze;  197a  2,  3,  4,  green 
glaze,  smaller :  197e,  f,  violet  glass  ;  197f  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8, 
green  glaze;  197g,  blue  glaze;  197h,  steatite;  197j,  blue 
glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  197k,  blue  glaze 
with  yellow  points,  Roman ;  1971,  bronze,  kneeling,  pouring 
water  (see  Cairo,  38,569 ;  see  3Sm) ;  197m  (pi.  xlv),  bone, 
Illahun,  seated  ;  197n  (pi.  xlv),  ebony,  seated. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  60,  Blue  glaze  19,  Grey  glaze  5, 
Black  and  yellow  glaze  2,  Red  glaze  1,  Blue  glass  3,  Grey 
glass  2,  Yellow  glass  2,  Bronze  8,  Wood  7,  Bone  1, 
Porphyry  1,  Quartz  crystal  1,  Carnelian  1,  Agate  1. 

Position.    Chest  (2). 

Collections.  Cairo  44,  Turin  17,  St.  Petersburg  14,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  18,  E.  10,  Murch  7,  Athens  8. 


198.    UPUATU. 

Names.    "  The  opener  of  the  ways." 

Meaning.  Guidance  to  the  soul,  as  the  jackal's  tracks 
show  the  best  way  in  the  desert. 

Period.    Ptolemaic  (?). 

Figure.  198,  black  steatite,  kneeling  figure  with  a 
hawk's  body  behind,  and  with  two  jackal  heads,  the  god 
being  double,  of  the  north  and  of  the  south. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

199.    JACKAL-HEADED  ARCHER. 

This  god  is  not  identified. 

Period.    XXII  (?). 

Figure.     199,  wood.    (See  Cairo  Catalogue,  88,857.) 

Collections.     Cairo  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

200.    SHREWMOUSE-HEADED  FIGURE. 

This  appears  to  be  a  male  figure ;  as  the  shrew  mouse 
was  sacred  to  Horus,  it  may  be  a  form  of  that  god. 
Figures.    200,  bronze.    (See  Cairo  Catalogue,  88,859.) 
Collections.    Cairo  1,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

201.    SEBEK. 

Period.    XVIII. 

Figure.  201,  light  blue  opaque  glass  (see  LANZ.,  Diz. 
Mit.,  cocliv). 

Material.    Above  ;  and  gold,  Cairo. 
Position.     Chest  (1). 
Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  Cairo  1. 

202.    TEHUTI. 

Principally  honoured  as  the  god  of  writing  and  know- 
ledge. 

Period,    XXVI  to  XXX. 

Figures.  202a,  green  glaze,  Tehuti  holding  an  uzat  eye 
in  each  hand  ;  on  back  "  Speech  of  Tehuti,  lord  of  Shmun 
great  god,  lady  (sic)  of  heaven  .  .  ."  ;  202b,  green  glaze 
faded,  Hawara ;  202b,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  green  glaze ;  202c,  blue 
glaze,  with  violet  beak ;  202c  2,  3,  lazuli ;  202d,  green 
glaze;  202e,  e  2,  pewter  plate,  group  18;  202f,  bronze; 
202g,  green-blue  glaze ;  202h,  steatite  charm  tablet,  with 
figure  of  Tehuti ;  rosette  and  line  of  Demotic  on  reverse ; 
202j,  j  2,  8,  blue  glaze;  202k,  bronze;  2021,  green  glaze 
(pi.  xlvi). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  88,  Blue  glaze  28,  Grey  glaze  6, 
White  glaze  1,  Red  glaze  1,  Lazuli  7,  Blue  glass  2,  Bronze 
3,  Pewter  1. 

Position.  In  the  main  row  of  gods  on  the  chest  (9) ; 
stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  51,  Turin  86,  St.  Petersburg  15, 
Univ.  Coll.  P.  18,  E.  8,  Athens  2, 


AMULETS    OF    ANIMAL-HEADED    GODS 


203.    SERPENT-HEADED  GOD. 

Name.  Khet-ba-mutef  is  represented  crowned  with  a 
disc,  perhaps  the  same  as  203b,  which  has  disc  and 
crescent  (LiNZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  998). 


Figures.  203a,  blue-green  glaze,  two  serpent  heads,  on 
back  a  blundered  inscription,  beginning  Ra  nofer  ar  .  .  .; 
203b,  bronze,  Khet-ba-mutef  (?) ;  208c,  bronze ;  203d,  lead, 
possibly  a  serpent  head. 


CHAPTER  IX 
AMULETS  OF  ANIMAL  GODS 

THEOPHOBIC  AMULETS,  204 — 261. 


MISCELLANEOUS,  262 — 276. 


THE  worship  of  sacred  animals  survived  in  Egypt  for 
thousands  of  years  alongside  of  higher  beliefs.  Beginning 
probably  before  the  earliest  civilisation  of  which  we  have 
remains,  it  is  found  to  be  prominent  in  all  the  great  centres, 
and  most  of  the  nomes.  The  bulls  of  Memphis  and  Helio- 
polis,  the  ram  of  Thebes,  the  hawk  of  Edfu,  are  the  remains 
of  older  faiths,  long  before  Ptah  and  Amen  and  Horus  had 
eclipsed  them  in  those  cities.  The  popularity  of  the  animal 
worship  did  not  wane  till  Roman  times ;  the  abundance 
of  amulets  of  sacred  animals  shows  how  much  was  thought 
of  them.  Though  some  animal  figures  here  are  not  known 
to  be  connected  with  a  god,  that  is  to  be  expected,  as  it 
was  not  always  that  a  junction  with  later  theology  could 
be  performed.  The  old  independent  animal  worships  would 
not  have  any  priesthoods  or  inscriptions  by  which  we  can 
recognise  them ;  and  it  is  only  the  making  and  wearing  of 
these  figures  which  shows  what  animals  were  venerated. 

204.    APE  STANDING   (Cercopithecus). 

Period.    XXVI  to  Ptolemaic  (?). 

Figures.  20Sa,  a  2,  faded  green  glaze ;  20Sb,  b  2,  violet 
glass;  204c,  faded  green  glaze,  Memphis;  204d,  green 
glaze,  burnt  brown,  ape  standing  over  kneeling  woman; 
204e  (xlvii),  green  glaze. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  20,  Blue  glaze  11,  Lazuli  1, 
Blue  glass  2,  Basalt  1,  Bronze  1. 

Collections.  Cairo  17,  St.  Petersburg  5,  Turin  4,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  4,  E.  8,  Murch  85  (amethyst  27,  carnelian  4, 
lazuli  8,  green  felspar,  attitude  not  stated). 

205.    APE   SEATED. 

Period.    VI  to  XXX. 

Fignret.  203a,  bone,  Vlth  dynasty,  group  4 ;  205b,  green 
glaze,  burnt  red ;  205c,  blue  glaze  faded  white,  Memphis ; 
205d,  green  glaze,  faded. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  4,  Yellow  frit  2,  Blue  glaze  1, 
Bone  1. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Cairo  8,  St.  Petersburg  1, 

Murch. 


206.    BABOON   (Papio). 


Period.     VI  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  206a,  bone,  group  6;  206b,  bone,  group  8; 
206c,  green-blue  glaze,  group  9  ;  206d,  blue  glaze,  group 
12  ;  206e,  green  glaze,  XIX  (?)  ;  206f  ,  two  baboons,  crowned 
with  disc  and  crescent,  electrum,  XVIII  ;  206g,  blue  glaze, 
XVIII;  206h,  white  schist,  on  back  "  Tehuti  lord  of 
Shmun";  206j,  bronze;  206k,  green  glaze,  holding  mat; 
2061,  blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21;  206m, 
(pi.  xlv),  green  glaze,  Illahun,  XXIInd  dynasty.  (See  also 


Materials.  Green  glaze  15,  Blue  glaze  9,  Yellow  glaze 
3,  Red  jasper  1,  Carnelian  1,  Agate  1,  Red  glaze  1,  Blue 
glass  2,  Lazuli  1,  Bronze  2,  Bone  2,  Onyx  1,  Schist  1, 
Electrum  1. 

Collections.  Turin  19,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  12,  St.  Petersburg 
9,  Cairo  5,  Murch  4,  Athens  1. 

207.    APIS. 

Name.  Hap.  There  is  no  connection  yet  known  between 
this  and  Hap,  the  Nile,  or  Hapy,  one  of  the  four  sons  of 
Horus. 

Meaning.  The  sacred  bull  Hap  was  the  primitive  wor- 
ship of  Memphis,  like  the  sacred  bulls  with  other  names  in 

other  cities. 

Varieties.      A,    bronze  figures.      B,   square  tablets  or 

pectorals. 

Period.    XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  Type  A,  207a,  bronze,  on  a  sled,  disc  and 
uraeus  between  the  horns  ;  207b,  c,  bronze,  with  disc  and 
uraeus;  207b  2,  blue  glaze.  Type  B,  207d,  green  glaze; 
207e,  silver  embossed  plate,  bull  regardant,  with  garland 
hung  over  it  ;  207f,  cast  lead  plate,  bull  fed  by  a  kneeling 
priest,  garland  above;  207g,  blue  glaze,  with  black  and 
yellow  applied,  bull  regardant  ;  207h  (pi.  xlv),  blue  glasi 

impressed. 

Materials.  Bronze,  14,  Yellow  glaze  9,  Blue  glaze  10, 
Green  glaze  8,  Yellow  glass  2,  Blue  glass  8,  Silver  1,  Lead  1, 
Schist  2. 


48 


a  2 


AMULETS    OF    ANIMAL  GODS 


Collections.  Cairo  12,  St.  Petersburg  10,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  9, 
E.  1,  Turin  9,  Athens  8,  Alnwick  2,  Murch  1  B. 

208.    HATHOH   COW. 

Name.  Erpet  alit  (MacG.  58) ;  the  Aht  cow  belonged  to 
Hathor,  by  the  amulet  or  badge  worn  on  the  neck  (IiANZ., 
Dit.  Mit.,  I). 

Varieties.    A,  couchant.     B,  standing. 

Period.     XVIII  to  Roman. 

Figure*.  208a,  fine  blue  glaze,  mid  XVIII ;  208b,  light 
green  glazo.XXVI;  208c,  blue  glaze, moulded,  flat  back,  XIX ; 
208d,  bronze,  cut  out  of  a  Bheet ;  208e,  moulded  wax,  gilt, 
group  '20;  208f,  npple  green  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic, 
group  21  ;  208g,  blue  glaze,  couchant  (xlvi). 

Material*.  Blue  glaze  3,  Green  glaze  3,  Carnelian  2, 
"  Black  and  white  stone,"  Cairo  2,  Bronze  3,  Red  glass  2, 
Red  and  yellow  glass  1,  Yellow  glass  1,  Red  glaze  1, Jasper  1, 
Wax  1. 

Poniti«n.     CbcHt  (1)  ;  stomach  <2>. 

Collection*.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  G,  Cuiro  5,  Athens  4,  St.  Peters- 
burg 2,  Turin  2,  Alnwick  1. 

200.    HATIIOK    COW   ON   SQUARE. 

Varieties.     A  regular  naon,  on  a  plain  square  plaque. 

Period.     XXVI  to  Ptolemaic  (?). 

Figure*.  209a,  light  blue  gla/e,  with  dark  green-blue 
inlay  ;  2091),  blue-green  glaze,  impressed  cow,  with  relief  of 
twat  above;  209c,  green  glaze,  fuded  brown,  disc  between 
the  horns;  209d,  light  blue  glaze,  disc  between  the  horns; 
209o,  cant  lead  plate,  disc  between  the  horns,  feeding  stand 
in  front,  stnr  and  crescent  above.  The  last  is  distinctly  a 
cow,  the  previous  four  might  be  intended  for  a  bull,  but  the 
similarity  of  c,  <1,  and  r  points  to  the  same  meaning. 

Materials.  Bronze  11,  Blue  glaze  6,  Given  glaze  G, 
Steatite  3,  Green  frit  2,  Lead  1. 

Collections.  Cairo  23,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  St.  Petersburg  1, 
Athens  1. 

210.    IIATIIOU    COW   HEAD. 

Period.     XVIII  (?). 

Figure*.  21  Oa,  white  opaque  quartz,  covered  with 
green  glaze,  inscribed  on  back  "  Hathor  lady  of  N  .," 
broken  from  a  figure ;  note  the  two  plumes  above  the  disc  ; 
210b,  bronze,  human  face  on  back,  short  stem  below ;  210c, 
bronze,  cow  head  (back  up);  210d,  apple  green  glaze; 
210e,  violet  glaze,  human  wig  at  sides. 

Materials.  Bronze  2,  Quartz  glazed  1,  Apple  green 
glaze  1,  Violet  glaze  1. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5. 

211.    RAM. 

Name.    Sera. 

Meaning.    Creator,  as  Khnumu,  Amon  and  Ha 
Varieties.     A,  couchant.    B,  standing.     C,  four-headed 


emblem  of  Ra,  aMendes,  the  souls  of  Ra,  Osiris,  Shu  and 
Khepera. 

Period.    Prehjtoric  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  «lt  noble  serpentine ;  211b,  dark  green 
steatite,  both  proiatoric ;  211c,  lazuli,  with  the  character 
istic  long  fleece  ;illd,  d 2,  light  green  glaze ;  211e,  silver- 
21  If,  green  glazdrarnt  brown.  Memphis ;  21  lg,  dark  blue 
glaze  ;  21  Ih,  ligl  green  glaze ;  21  Ij,  deep  blue  glaze  with 
yellow  points,  grap  22,  Roman ;  211k,  apple-green  glaze 
Dendereh,  Ptoleiaic,  group  21 ;  2111,  schist,  ram  couchant 
under  tree,  uraas  in  front ;  reverse,  title  and  name  of 
Shabaka,  XXVthlynaaty  ;  211m  (pi.  xl),  bronze,  with  two 
heads.  C,  211  n  >1.  xlvi),  lazuli. 

Material*.  Bie  glaze  26,  Green  glaze  15,  Lazuli  5 
(4  of  C),  Steatite  '.  Silver  1,  Bronze  2,  Schist  2,  Carnelian  1, 
Serpentine  1,  Retglaze  1. 

ColUctioni.  Ciro  16  (2  of  C),  Turin  10,  Univ.  Coll. 
P.  10,  E.  1,  St.  Ptersburg  6,  Alnwick  5,  Athens  2,  Murch  4. 

J12.    RAM'S  HEAD. 

Varieties.  A,  fit  prehistoric,  with  round  neck.  B,  late 
relief,  without  nee.  C,  on  column. 

Period.    Prehis>ric  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.     Type  A,  212a,  black  steatite;   212b,  noble 
serpentine  ;  212c,  irnelian  ;   212d,  noble  serpentine,  pale 
oil-green;    2 12d  2  green  serpentine,  Tarkhan;  212e,  e2, 
ivory,  stained  grt'i  ;    212f,  durite  ;    212g,  g 2,  alabaster; 
212h,  brown  serpntiue,  veined;   212j,  Carnelian;  212k, 
dark    green    serpttine;    2121,    alabaster;    212m,  black 
serpentine,  ostricl  eggshell  eye.    Type  B,  212n,  silver; 
212d,  bronze  ;  212,  green  glaze  faded  brown;  212q,  blue 
glaze,  Dendereh,  Pilemaic  ;  212r,  hollow  bronze  case,  with 
blue  glass  eyes,  rig  for  hanging  beneath  mouth;  212s, 
schist  scarab  with  im's  head,  name  of  Shabakaon  reverse, 
XXVth  dynasty,     'rpe  C,  212t  (two  views),  green  glaze, 
serpent  on  one  sidt  winged  serpent  on  other,  on  front  disc 
with  uraei,  *i  ra  Ann  mery,  and  blundered  signs. 

Materials.  Preh  toric,  Alabaster  8,  Carnelian  8,  Noble 
serpentine  2,  Ivory  ^ Green  serpentine  1,  Black  serpentine  1, 
Black  steatite  1,  Bnvn  serpentine  1,  Durite  1.  Historic, 
Grey  glaze  3,  Greeiqlaze  2,  Green  felspar  1,  Blue  glaze  1, 
Blue  paste  1,  Gold  j  Silver  1,  Bronze  2,  Schist  1,  Brown 
limestone  1. 

Collections.     UnhColl.  P.  21,  Turin  4,  Murch  4,  Athens  1. 

218.    HARE. 

Name  and  Meanig.  Sekhat.  Used  probably  as  the 
hieroglyph  for  un,  >eing,  and  hence  probably  used  for 
Un-nefer,  the  good  bing,  or  Osiris. 

Period.    XXVItoLXX. 

Figures.  213a,  lint  green  glaze;  213b,  glaze  faded 
white ;  213b  2,  green  ;laze  ;  21 3c,  light  blue  glaze. 

Materials.  Green  laze  22,  Blue  glaze  17,  Yellow  glaze  1, 
Carnelian  1. 


44 


AMTLETS    OF    ANIMAL    GODS 


Collections.  Cairo  22,  St.  Petersbu?  8,  Turin  5,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  8,  E.  1,  Athens  1,  Murch  1. 

214.     IBEX   (Capra  nviana). 

Meaning.  "  Ba  the  divine,  above  tb  gods  "  (LANZ,  Die. 
Mit.,  190). 

Figure.    214,  green  glaze,  onkh  on  tse. 
Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  E.  1,  lurch  1. 

215.    BARBARY  SHEEP  Qvis  lervia). 
Figure.     215,  serpentine,    green   prtly    gone    brown, 
no  horns,  but  a  heavy  long  head. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

216.    KLIPSPRINGER   (Ceotragus)  (?). 

Period.    XVIIIth  dynasty. 

Figure.  216,  green  glaze  on  schis  two  scrolls  on  base. 
The  small  head,  long  neck,  and  making  of  coarse  hair 
seem  to  define  this  identification.  Shct  curved  horns  have 
lain  over  to  the  shoulder,  but  are  brotn  away. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

217.    CAMEL. 

Meaning.    Hairs  from  tail  used  for[uartan  fever  (PLINY, 
xxviii,  25). 
Period.    Eoman  (?). 
Figure.    217,  bronze,  flat  plate. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 


218.    HAWK-HEADED  .PHINX. 


Period. 
Figure. 
tail. 

Collection. 


Prehistoric. 

218,  hard  white  limeston  with  gold  bands,  no 


Univ.  Coll.  P.  1.     (SeetfS,  as  Mentu.) 
219.    LION. 


Milky  agate  1 ,  Porphyry  1 ,  Lazuli  1 ,  Hard  white  limestone  1 , 
Bone  8. 

Position.    Chest  (6);  Stomach  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  16,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  14,  E.  2,  Turin  9, 
St.  Petersburg  7,  Murch  2. 

220.    TWO   LIONS. 

Name.    Khens  (MacG.  56) ;  two  fore-parts  joined. 

Meaning.  The  Mahes  (see  192)  of  north  and  south 
(LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  269).  See  vignette  of  Chapter  17,  Book  of 
the  Dead. 

Varieties.  A,  two  fore-parts  joined.  B,  two  lions 
rampant. 

Period.  A,  Vlth  to  XXVIIth  dynasty.  B,  Prehistoric, 
Coptic. 

Figures.  Type  A,  220a,  a  2,  sard,  Vlth  dynasty,  group  7  ; 
220b,  bone,  Vlth  dynasty  (?) ;  220c,  light  green  glaze, 
XXVII ;  220c  2,  blue  glaze ;  220d,  ivory,  Old  Kingdom  (?) 
(see  Deshaslieh,  xxvi,  26).  Type  B,  220e,  iron  disc  incised, 
Coptic,  Illahun,  indistinct  signs  between  and  above  (see 
two  rampant  lions  on  ivory  ring,  prehistoric,  in  Naqada, 
Ixiv,  78). 

Materials.  Green  glaze  8,  Blue  glaze  2,  Brown  glaze  1, 
Grey  glaze  1,  Sard  1,  Cloudy  agate  1,  Ivory  2,  Iron  B,  1. 

Position.     Chest  (1). 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  6,  E.  1,  Turin  8,  St.  Peters- 
burg 2,  Cairo  2,  Price  1. 


221.    LION'S   HEAD. 

Period.     XXXth  dynasty. 

Figure.  221  a,  light  green  glaze,  flat  back  (similar  Aln- 
wick, 604) ;  221b,  c  (pi.  xlv),  green  glaze,  Illahun,  XXIInd 
dynasty  ;  221d,  coarse  blue  glaze  Eoman  (see  269). 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Alnwick  1. 


Name.    Seno  (couchant). 

Meaning.    To  guard  or  defend. 

Varieties.  A,  couchant.  B,  walkig.  C,  seated.  D,  with 
crouching  man. 

Period.    Prehistoric  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  Type  A,  219a,  hard  wite  limestone;  219b, 
black  and  white  porphyry,  both  prehitoric  ;  219c,  amethyst, 
XII ;  219d,  d  2,  d  8,  bone,  VI,  group  fc  219e,  gold,  VI ;  219f, 
light  blue  glaze;  219g,  light  blueglaze,  faded;  219h2, 
light  green  glaze,  XXVIIth  dynasty  219J,  blue  and  black 
glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic  ;  219k,  k  i  blue  glaze,  VI,  group, 
11,  XII,  Kafr  Ammar  ;  2191  (pi.  xlvi  carnelian,  early  (see 
Nagada,  Iviii;  Deshasheh,  xxvi,  15;  219m  (xlvi),  green 
glaze,  with  flower  of  Nefertum  on  had;  219n,  with  squat- 
ting man  before,  head  turned  back  blue  glaze  with  yellow 
points,  Roman  (xlvi). 

Materials.  Green  glaze,  16  (2  o  B,  2  of  C),  Blue  glaze 
16,  Grey  glaze  1,  Gold  1,  Bronze  1,  Aiethyst  1,  Carnelian  1, 


222.    LION   AND   BULL,   FORE-PARTS. 

Period.    XXVII. 

Figure.     See  Cairo  catalogue. 

Materials.     Green  glaze  8. 

Collections.    Alnwick  5,  St.  Petersburg  (695),  2,  Cairo  1. 

223.    TWO  BULLS,   FORE-PARTS. 

Period.  This  is  a  very  ancient  combination,  appearing 
on  one  of  the  predynastic  slate  palettes  (CAPART,  Primitive 
Art  fig.  170).  The  amulets  are  of  the  XXVIth  dynasty. 

Fwures.  223a,  pale  green  glaze,  Hawara ;  223b,  green 
glaze  gone  brown,  Hawara,  group  32;  223c,  olive  green 

glaze. 

Position.    Chest  (1). 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  3,  St.  Petersburg  1,  Price  1. 


46 


AMULETS     OF    ANIMAL     GODS 


224.    CAT. 

Name.     Mau. 

Meaning.    Emblem  of  the  goddess  Bastet. 

Varietiet.    A,  seated.    B,  couchant.    C,  walking. 

Period.  XVIII  to  Boman.  Very  common  on  necklaces 
of  XXIInd  and  XXIIIrd  dynasty. 

Figures.  Type  A,  224a,  silver,  group  16 ;  224b,  c,  light 
green  glaze ;  224d,  green  glaze  burnt  brown  ;  224d  2,  blue 
and  black  glaze  ;  224d  3,  olive  glaze ;  224e,  light  blue  glaze ; 
224e  2,  bronze;  224f,  blue  and  black  glaze,  Dendereh, 
Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  224g,  blue  glaze,  with  yellow  points, 
Koman.  Type  B,  224h,  lion  or  cat ;  224j,  cat,  green  glaze, 
Xlth  dynasty,  Kafr  Ammar  ;  224k,  blue  glazed  schist,  Ymenf 
on  base,  XVIII ;  224k  2,  blue-glazed  pottery ;  2241,  dark 
blue  paste,  Amen-ra  in  cartouche  on  base,  dubious.  Type  C, 
224m,  blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  22,  Blue  glaze  13,  Bronze  9, 
Grey  glaze  3,  Carnelian  1,  Yellow  glaze  1,  Black  glaze  1, 
Purple  glaze  1,  Black  limestone  1,  Silver  1,  Blue  paste  1. 

Position.     Feet  (1). 

Collections.  Turin  13,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  12,  E.  4,  Cairo  11, 
St.  Petersburg  10,  Edinburgh  3,  Murch  3. 

225.    CAT   IN   SHRINE. 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figure.  225,  green  glaze,  papyrus  stem  and  head  on 
each  of  the  three  sides,  Memphis.  Also  a  rough  solid 
imitation,  green  glaze  (Edw.) 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  E.  1. 

226.    TWO   CATS   ON   COLUMN. 

Varieties.  Three  in  Cairo  have  only  one  cat  on  the 
column. 

Period.     XXIII. 

Figures.  226a,  b,  green  glaze,  octagonal  column,  blun- 
dered inscription  on  front,  "  Speech  of  Bastet  lady  of  Pa 
Bastet "  ;  226c  (pi.  xliii),  column  with  feet  of  cat,  inscribed 
"  Speech  of  Bastet  .  .  ." 

Materials.     Green  glaze  6. 

Collections.     Cairo  4,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

227.    CAT   AND   KITTENS. 

Varieties.    A,  seated.     B,  couchant. 

Period,     XXII  to  XXVI. 

Figures.  227a,  bronze,  two  kittens  ;  227b,  light  green 
glaze,  five  kittens,  three  in  front,  one  each  side ;  227c, 
green  glaze,  one  kitten. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  7,  Green-glazed  stone  2,  Purple 
glaze  1,  Carnelian  1,  Bronze  1. 

Collections.  Cairo  A,  3  (3,  6  and  9  kittens),  B,  6,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  3. 

228.    SET  ANIMAL. 

Period.    XIX  (?). 

Figures.     228a,  light  blue  glaze,  impressed  plaque  ;  228b, 


dark  blue  glaze,  perhaps  Mentu  as  a   hawk-headed  lion 
(see  also  183  for  set,  and  engraved  stone  138  g). 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

229.    JACKAL  STANDING. 

Name.     Upuatu. 

Meaning.     "  Opener  of  ways  "  for  the  soul  (see  198). 

Figures.  229a,  light  blue  glaze ;  229b,  c,  bronze  ;  229d, 
bronze,  and  d  2,  green  glaze,  with  the  two  serpents  in  front 
(compare  the  two  serpents  that  led  the  way  for  Alexander 
to  the  Oasis)  ;  229e,  bronze,  the  four  Upuats  (of  the  four 
quarters)  who  open  the  way  for  the  sun  in  the  under- 
world (LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  cclvi). 

Materials.    Bronze  5,  Green  glaze  1,  Blue  glaze  1. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  St.  Petersburg  2,  Cairo  1. 

230.    TWO  JACKAL  HEADS. 

Name.     Upuatu  of  the  south  and  north. 
Figure.    230,  hard  brown  limestone,  pierced  under  the 
tip  of  the  ears,  flat  base. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

281.    JACKAL  COUCHANT. 

Name.     Anpu,  Anubis. 

Meaning,  The  guardian  of  the  cemetery,  and  of  the 
dead  in  the  judgment. 

Varieties.    A,  on  ground.     B,  on  shrine. 

Period.     XXVI  to  Roman. 

Figures.  Type  A,  231a,  blue  glaze,  XIX ;  231b,  blue  glass 
Ptolemaic  ;  231c,  blue  and  black  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic, 
group  21.  Type  B,  231d,  e,  pewter  plates  with  za  serpent 
above,  group  18 ;  231  f,  g,  h,  blue  and  black  glaze,  Dendereh, 
Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  231  j,  green  glazed  schist  (pi.  xxxviii). 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  8,  Black  glass  3,  Blue  glass  1, 
Pewter  2,  Haematite  1,  Blue  paste  1,  Green  glaze  1,  Grey 
glaze  1,  Bronze  1,  Wood  3. 

Position.     Chest  (3) ;  stomach  (3). 

Collections.  Turin  9,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  8,  Athens  4,  St. 
Petersburg  2,  Murch  2. 

232.    SHREW   MOUSE. 

Meaning.  Sacred  to  Horus  and  Uazet.  Passed  round 
boils  as  a  charm  (PLINY,  xxx,  34). 

Varieties.    A,  standing.    B,  on  box. 

Figures.  Type  A,  232a,  b,  c,  d,  e,  bronze.  Type  B,  232f, 
bronze,  as  also  two  at  St.  Petersburg. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  St.  Petersburg  2. 

233.    DOG. 

Meaning.  As  these  dogs  are  all  short-legged,  they 
probably  refer  to  watching  and  guarding  the  person,  and 
not  to  hunting. 

Period.    Eoman  and  Coptic. 


AMULETS     OF    ANIMAL     GODS 


Figures.  233a,  b,  bronze ;  233c,  red  coral,  dog  seated ; 
233d,  dark  blue  glaze  with  yellow  points,  Roman,  group  22 ; 
233e,  mother  of  pearl,  Coptic ;  233f,  f  2,  light  blue  glaze,  dog 
lying  down. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  3,  Blue  glaze  2,  Bronze  2, 
"  Black  and  white  stone  "  (Cairo)  2,  Syenite  1,  Red  coral  1, 
Shell  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  6,  Cairo  4  (2  seated,  1  lying 
paws  crossed,  1  curled  up),  Murch  1. 

234.    PIG. 

Names.     Apeh,  Rera,  Sdau. 

Meaning.  Sacrificed  to  Osiris  annually.  Pig  standard 
of  the  sixth  and  seventh  months,  Mekhir  and  Phamenoth 
(LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  vii). 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  234a,  b,  light  blue  glaze  ;  234c,  c  2,  light  green 
glaze.  All  sows. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  20,  Blue  glaze  11,  Black  glaze  2, 
Yellow  glaze  1. 

Collections.  Cairo  18,  St.  Petersburg  7,  Turin  3,  Univ. 
Coll.  P.  3,  E.  2,  Athens  2. 

285.    HIPPOPOTAMUS. 

Name.    Apt. 

Meaning.     Sacred  as  Taurt  (see  236). 

Period.    Prehistoric.     Copper  plate,  XVIII  (?). 

Figures.  235a,  noble  serpentine,  hippopotamus  feeding, 
under  the  base  a  wavy  line  in  relief,  perhaps  a  serpent ; 
235b,  c,  brown  steatite ;  235d,  pink  limestone,  a  frequent 
ornament  for  attachment  to  legs  of  water  skins;  235d  2, 
small,  round,  dolomite,  Tarkhan,  1292  ;  235e,  copper  plate. 

Materials.  Brown  steatite  2,  Pink  limestone  1,  Noble 
serpentine  1,  Copper  1,  [Green  glaze  1,  "  White  stone  "  1, 
Blue  glass  1,  Cairo.] 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  Cairo  3. 

286.    TAURT. 

Name.     Taurt. 

Meaning.    "  The  great  one,"  the  goddess  of  pregnancy. 

Varieties.    A,  flat.     B,  round.     C,  double. 

Period.    A,  VI  to  XVIII.    B,  XVIII  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  Type  A,  236a,  blue  glaze,  Vlth  dynasty,  Zaraby ; 
236b,  c,  bone,  Vlth  dynasty,  group  8.  B,  236d,  greenish 
limestone  with  gold  crown,  XXVI,  group  15.  A,  236e,  f, 
indigo  blue  glaze,  XVIIIth  dynasty ;  236g,  indigo  blue 
glaze,  Tell  Amarna,  XVIIIth  dynasty ;  236g  2,  schist,  blue- 
glazed,  Xllth  dynasty,  Kahun ;  236h,  mottled  glass,  black, 
white,  blue  and  red,  XVIII;  236j ,  violet  glass,  XVIII ;  236j  2, 
blue  glazed  schist ;  236k,  black  steatite,  XIX  ;  2361,  green- 
glazed  schist ;  236m,  green  glaze ;  236n,  violet  glass,  XVIII ; 
236n  2  to  17,  necklace  of  blue  glaze,  XVIII ;  236o,  lazuli, 
group  28  (pi.  xlv) ;  236o  2,  o  8  (pi.  xlv),  blue  glaze,  Xllth 
dynasty,  Kahun.  B,  236p,  green  glaze,  black  hair  and 


back;  236q,  bronze;  236q  2,  green  glaze;  236r,  white 
glaze  with  yellow  feathers,  fine  work,  XVIII  (?) ;  236s,  t,  green 
glaze,  XXVI ;  236u,  red  jasper  for  inlay ;  288v,  w,  w  2,  8, 
4,  5,  6,  green  glaze ;  236x,  bronze ;  238y  2,  8,  4,  green 
glaze ;  236z,  glass,  burnt ;  236aa,  blue  glaze,  Dendereh, 
Ptolemaic,  group  21.  C,  236ab,  double  Taurt,  violet  glaze 
XVIIIth  dynasty.  A,  236ac,  black  and  white  serpentine 
(pi.  xlvi). 

Materials.  Blue  glaze  54,  Green  glaze  51,  Yellow  glaze  2, 
Grey  glaze  2,  Lazuli  2,  Violet  glass  2,  Bronze  2,  Haematite  8, 
Bone  2,  Porphyry  1,  Red  glaze  1,  White  glaze  1,  Violet 
glaze  1,  Red-grey  glaze  1,  Blue  glass  1,  Mottled  glass  1, 
Schist  green-glazed  1,  Schist  blue-glazed  2,  Jasper  1,  Black 
steatite  1,  Limestone  1,  Breccia  1,  Serpentine  1. 

Positions.    Diaphragm  (2) ;  stomach  (1) ;  feet  (1). 

Collections.  Cairo  45,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  41,  E.  10,  Turin  84, 
St.  Petersburg  25,  Murch  5. 

287.    HIPPOPOTAMUS   HEAD. 

Period.     Vlth  to  Xllth  dynasties. 

Figures.  237a,  green  glaze  on  schist,  button  §eal  with 
head  of  Hathor  and  serpents ;  237b,  sard,  head  and  fore- 
paws  broken  from  a  figure ;  237c,  carnelian,  group  8 ; 
237d,  e,  f,  carnelian,  group  14 ;  237g,  deep  red  sard ; 
237h,  j,  k,  1,  amethyst ;  237m,  carnelian  ;  237n,  black-green 
jasper  ;  237o,  p,  black -green  serpentine;  237q,  green  glaze, 
Xlth  dynasty,  Diospolis. 

Materials.  Green  felspar  18,  Amethyst  13,  Oarnelian  9, 
Black  serpentine  3,  Sard  2,  Black  jasper  1,  Glazed  schist  1, 
Green  glaze  1. 

Collections.     Murch  82,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  16. 

288.    HEDGEHOG. 

Period.    XX  to  XXVI  (?). 

Figure.  238,  on  base  a  fish  and  a  crocodile.  (All  have 
incised  bases.) 

Materials.  Green  glaze  7,  Blue  glaze  8,  Agate  1,  "White 
stone"  1,  Brown  agate  1,  Black  glaze  1,  Schist  1  (above), 
Steatite  white  glaze  1,  Steatite  green  glaze  1. 

Collections.  Athens  7,  Cairo  6,  Alnwick  2,  Univ.  Coll. 
P.  1,  Murch  1. 

239.    TURTLE   (Trionyx  Triunguis). 

Name.     Opesh. 

Meaning.  The  animal  of  death  and  darkness.  The 
Book  of  the  Dead  in  Chapter  36  reads  :  "  Chapter  whereby 
the  Opshait  is  kept  back.  Away  from  me,  thou  with  parted 
lips  !  I  am  Khnumu  the  lord  of  Shennu,  who  am  bringing 
the  words  of  the  gods  to  Ra,  and  I  announce  the  news  to 
Nebes."  In  late  papyri  it  is  turned  into  a  blackbeetle ;  but 
the  name  shows  it  to  be  the  turtle. 

Period.    Prehistoric  to  Xllth  dynasty  (?). 

Figures.  239a,  brown  agate ;  239b,  carnelian  ;  239b  2, 
8,  black  serpentine. 


47 


AMULETS     OF    ANIMAL     GODS 


Materials.  Amethyst  2,  Carnelian  2,  Black  serpentine  2, 
Porphyry  1,  Brown  agate  1,  Limestone  1 ;  and  coiled  gold 
wire  (see  Dese.  Eg.,  V,  59,  26—7). 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Murch  5. 

240.    CROCODILE. 

Name.  A,  Hor  am  utu  (LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  ccxvii).  B, 
Emsehu. 

Meaning.    Emblem  of  Sebek  the  crocodile  god. 

Varieties.  A,  hawk-headed  and  winged,  as  identified 
with  Horus.  B,  normal.  C,  capturing  a  boy.  D,  double. 
E,  seven  together.  F,  with  feathers,  disc  and  horns. 

Period.    Xllth  to  Eoman. 

Figures.  Type  A,  240a,  bronze,  the  Sebek-Ka  crocodile, 
with  hawk  head,  and  wings  raised,  on  the  head  a  crown 
of  uraei,  two  horns  and  the  papyrus  crown ;  upon  a 
corniced  stand,  without  inscription.  Type  B,  240b,  sard  ; 
240c,  haematite ;  240d,  grey  steatite,  Koman ;  240e,  dark 
blue  glaze,  XVIII;  240e,  2,  3,  rough  blue  glaze,  Xlth 
dynasty,  Kafr  Ammar ;  240f,  black  steatite,  Roman ;  240g, 
light  green  glaze,  Memphis ;  240h,  blue  glaze  with  yellow 
points,  Roman  ;  240j,  shell,  Coptic  (pi.  xlii).  Type  C,  240k, 
bronze,  crocodile  with  boy  in  his  mouth,  the  lower  jaw  on 
the  front  of  the  boy,  and  the  suspension  ring  under  the 
throat,  Memphis.  Type  D,  2401,  two  crocodiles,  grey 
steatite.  Type  B,  240m  (xlvi),  green  glaze,  and  m  2,  8,  4, 
5,  Nebesheh.  Type  F,  240n  (xlvii),  bronze. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  29,  Blue  glaze  15,  Steatite  4, 
Yellow  glaze  1,  Grey  glaze  1,  Bronze  3,  Sard  1,  Haematite 
1,  Porphyry. 

Collections.  Cairo  26,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  12,  E.  6,  St.  Peters- 
burg 4,  Turin  4,  Murch  1. 

241.    WARAN   (Varanus  niloticus). 

The  short  puffy  body  and  narrow  tail  distinguish  this 
from  the  crocodile  figures. 
Period.     Prehistoric. 

Figure.     241,  ivory,  suspension  hole  under  chest. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

242.    LIZARD. 

Period.     XXVI. 

Figure.  242,  light  green  glaze,  suspension  ring  at  each 
end,  Memphis. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

243.    MENTU   STANDARD. 

Meaning.  Protection  of  the  god  of  war.  No.  243f,  and 
perhaps  others,  seem  to  be  "  the  harpoon  of  Horus  of 
Edfu"  (MAE.,  Dend.,  iii,  68  c). 

Varieties.  A,  with  the  lance  or  harpoon  point.  B,  with 
the  aegis  of  Mentu. 

Period.    XlXth  to  XXVth  dynasty. 


Figures  and  Materials.  A,  243a,  bronze,  lance  head 
above  the  head  of  Mentu ;  243b,  bronze,  with  the  lance 
head  and  a  hawk  over  the  head  of  Mentu,  forked  base  to 
the  staff;  24 3c,  ebony,  the  Mentu  head  at  the  base  of  a 
harpoon ;  243d,  grey  steatite,  the  lance  head  above  the 
Mentu  head,  forked  below ;  B,  243e,  dark  blue  glaze,  aegis 
of  Mentu  on  head  of  staff,  XXI  (?) ;  243f,  bronze,  head  of 
Mentu  with  disc ;  243g,  bronze,  aegis  of  Mentu  on  staff, 
double  feathers  on  head,  uraeus  at  each  side.  (See  three 
large  examples  from  Koptos  at  Berlin.  Koptos,  xxi.  4, 5,  6.) 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  7 ;  Berlin  8. 

244.    HAWK-HEADED   SPHINX. 

Meaning.     The  king  as  Mentu. 
Period.     XIX. 

Figure.  244,  red  jasper,  with  cartouche  of  Rameses  II. 
on  base. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1  (see  218,  as  sphinx). 

245.    HAWK,   FALCON. 

This  royal  bird  is  more  correctly  called  a  falcon. 

Name.  Bak  (MacG.  55);  Sdt  (MacG.  24,  B.  D.  G. 
982)  =  the  bandaged  hawk  (LACAU,  95). 

Meanings.  The  bird  of  Horus  of  Edfu.  The  king's  soul. 
Hawk  of  Sopd  or  Seker. 

Varieties.  A,  alone.  B,  with  uraei.  C,  in  shrine.  D, 
of  east  and  west.  E,  mummified. 

Period.    Prehistoric  to  Ptolemaic. 

Figures.  Type  A,  245a,  yellow  and  black  serpentine; 
245b,  c,  bone;  245d,  greenish  limestone;  248e,  bone; 
245e  2,  sard,  Tarkhan,  1626 ;  245f,  noble  serpentine ; 
245g,  ivory ;  245h  (pi.  xlii),  grey  steatite,  all  prehistoric ; 
248j,  j  2,  j  8,  j  4,  bone,  Vlth  dynasty,  group  4 ;  245k,  bone, 
group  8,  Vlth  dynasty ;  2451,  green  felspar ;  2451 2,  blue 
glaze,  Hu,  Xlth  dynasty ;  245rn,  n,  o,  amethyst ;  245p,  q, 
carnelian,  group  14 :  h — q,  Vlth  to  Xllth  dynasty ;  248r,  dark 
indigo  glaze,  XVIII  (?) ;  245s,  green  glaze,  Vlth  dynasty  (?) ; 
245s 2,  sard,  Riqqeh,  XII;  245t,  green  schist;  245u  (xlii), 
blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  245v  (xlii), 
green  glaze,  on  shoulders  of  Isis ;  245w,  black  jasper ; 
245x,  jade,  fine  work  ;  245y,  y  2,  y  8,y  4,  green  glaze;  245z, 
light  blue  glaze ;  245aa,  hard  green  limestone ;  245ab, 
green  glaze ;  245ab  2,  blue  paste,  Naukratis ;  245ac,  green 
glass  burnt ;  245ac  2,  steatite,  Nebesheh ;  245ad — ad  4, 
gold,  XVIIIth  dynasty,  ad  2,  larger,  silver  (see  pi.  xlv); 
245ae,  bronze  ;  245af,  af  2,  af  3,  green  glaze  ;  245ag,  blue 
and  black  glaze,  head  turned  sideways,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic, 
group  21 :  245ah,  blue  and  black  glaze,  group  21 ;  245aj, 
light  blue  glaze,  group  21 ;  245ak  (pi.  xlv),  red  glass,  for 
inlay;  245al  (pi.  xlv),  silver  on  resin  body,  Xllth  dynasty. 
Type  B,  245am,  black  steatite,  Horus  with  the  serpents  of 
south  and  north,  as  described  in  the  battles  of  Horus  and 
Set  at  Edfu,  reverse  Horus  in  triumph  (pi.  xliii) ;  245an, 
lead  plate,  the  crowned  hawk  with  the  serpent  before  him, 


48 


AMULETS     OF     ANIMAL     GODS 


and  Isis  behind  him.  Type  C,  248ao,  blue  paste  shrine, 
containing  bust  of  hawk ;  above  it  a  cornice  of  seven  uraei ; 
on  each  side  the  hawk-headed  Horus-Ra  seated,  crowned 
with  disc  and  crescent ;  on  back  a  scarab ;  248ap,  blue  paste 
shrine,  head  of  the  hawk  from  it  here  put  at  the  side  of  it ; 
over  the  door  the  disc  and  serpents,  above  that  the  disc  and 
wings ;  on  the  side  the  Horus-Ra  seated,  on  the  lotus,  and 
behind  that  the  winged  hawk  on  the  neb ;  on  the  back  the 
disc  and  scarab ;  245aq,  light  blue  glaze,  shrine  with  hawk 
and  Isis  seated  before  it,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21,  as 
also  next  two.  Type  D,  24Sar,  hawk  crowned  with  disc,  abt 
hieroglyph  of  the  east  behind  it ;  245as,  hawk  crowned  with 
feathers,  amcnt,  west,  behind  it,  both  light  blue  glaze. 
Type  E,  gold,  Horuza,  Cairo.  Type  A,  245at  (pi.  xlvi), 
quartz  crystal. 

Materials.  Green  felspar  42,  Amethyst  31,  Green  glaze  24, 
Blue  glaze  20,  Lazuli  26,  BoneS,  Gold  6,  Bronze  8,  Steatite  4, 
Serpentine  8,  Haematite  2,  Carnelian  7,  Green  limestone  3, 
Blue  paste  3,  1  each  of  Silver,  Lead,  Quartz  crystal,  Black 
jasper,  Jade,  Green  schist,  Green  glass,  Red  glass,  Yellow 
glaze,  Violet  glaze,  Grey  glaze. 

Position.     Chest  (11)  ;  stomach  (8). 

Collections  Murch  89,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  51,  E.  8,  Cairo  22, 
Alnwick  16,  St.  Petersburg  10,  Turin  9,  Athens  5. 

246.    OSTRICH. 

Period.     Prehistoric. 

Figure.    246,  brown  serpentine,  ostrich  seated. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 


247.    IBIS. 

Name.    Habu,  whence  Greek  ibis. 

Meaning.     The  emblem  of  Tehuti,  the  god  of  wisdom. 

Period.     XVIII  to  Roman. 

Figures.  247a,  gold,  a  2,  without  feather  ;  247b,  c,  d, 
bronze  ;  247e,  blue  glaze  with  black  head  and  tail,  inscribed 
on  base  "  Lord  of  Khemnu  (give  life  to)  Hor-aa-pa-khred  "  ; 
247f,  green  glaze,  Kafr  Ammar,  Xlth  dynasty,  group  25  ; 
247g,  blue  glaze  ;  247g  2,  green  glaze,  standing ;  247h,  b.2,  3, 
light  blue-green  glaze ;  247j,  blue  glaze,  dark  blue  tail ;  247k, 
green  glaze,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21 ;  2471,  blue 
glaze  with  yellow  points,  Roman. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  11,  Blue  glaze  10,  Bronze  5, 
Gold  2,  Steatite  1,  Lazuli  1. 

Collections.  Univ.  Coll.  P.  12,  St.  Petersburg  8,  Turin  5, 
Alnwick  8,  Murch  2. 


248.    VULTURE. 

Name.    Naur. 

Meaning.    Devotion  to  the  goddess  Mut. 
Figures.    248a,  bronze;  248b,grey  limestone  (see  No.  94). 
The  latter  may  perhaps  be  an  eagle. 


249.     VULTURE  FLYING. 

Period.    XXVI  (?). 

Figures.    249a,  green-glazed  pottery ;  2Mb,  blue-glazed. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

250.     GOAT   SUCKER   (Caprimulgus). 

Period.     Prehistoric. 

Figures.    253a,  ivory  ;  250b,  carnelian. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

251.    BIRD  HEADS. 

Period.    Prehistoric. 

Figures.    251a,  b,  c,  slate  ;   281d,  slate,  1781  Naqadeh  ; 
251  e,  slate,  146  Naqadeh  ;  231  f,  slate,  1865  Naqadeh. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  6. 

252.    COPTIC   BIRD   AMULETS. 

Period.     Coptic. 

Figures.  232a,  b,  b  2,  c,  c  2,  d,  shell,  perhaps  intended 
for  the  hoopoe. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  5. 

253.    BIRD'S   FOOT. 

Period.     Coptic. 

Figure.  233,  wood,  natural  branching  twigs,  the  left  one 
broken,  Illahun. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

254.    SERPENT  WITH  ARMS. 

Name.    Nehcbka,  one  of  the  42  judges  of  the  dead. 

Meaning.  In  the  Xth  domain  of  the  underworld,  Neheb- 
kau  points  out  the  way  to  the  dead  (Book  of  the  Dead, 
Chapter  149),  and  the  dead  says  that  he  "  moves  eternally 
like  Nehebkau"  (Chapter  17).  As  an  amulet,  therefore,  it 
is  a  guide  to  the  soul. 

Varieties.     A,  serpent  body.     B,  human  body. 

Period.     About  XXth  dynasty. 

Figures.  234a,  dull  green  glaze  ;  2S4b,  deep  blue  glaze  ; 
254b2,  3,  green  glaze;  254c,  green  glaze,  group  19.  B, 
seated,  254d  (xlvi),  d2,  blue  glaze,  and  Cairo. 

Collections.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  5,  Cairo  1. 

255.    QARMUT  (Clarias  anguillaris). 

Name.    Nar  (in  name  of  early  King  Narmer). 

Meaning.  Sacred  fish  of  Mendes,  worn  on  head  of 
Hamehyt,  goddess  of  Mendes. 

Figures  and  Materials.  255a,  b,  Silver,  Xllth  dynasty  (?) ; 
2S5c,  Bone,  prehistoric  (?)  (see  173). 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  3. 

A  fish  carved  in  bone  is  an  amulet  against  the  evil  eye 
in  Italy  (BELL.,  xii,  23),  and  an  emblem  of  fecundity  (BELL., 
Fet-.,  42). 


49 


AMULETS     OF     ANIMAL     GODS 


256.    OXYRHYNKHOS  (Mormyrus). 

Name.  Mazed;  as  shown  by  the  city  Oxyrhynkhos  being 
called  Pa-mazed,  and  Mizz  or  Mizdeh  being  the  modern 
local  name  of  this  fish  in  that  district. 

Period.    XXVI  (?). 

Figure.  256,  bronze,  with  horned  disc  and  uraeus  on  the 
head. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

257.    BULTI   (Tilapia  nilotica). 

Period.    XII  to  Roman. 

Figures.  257a, bronze;  257a  2,  green  glaze,XIIth  dynasty, 
Kahun ;  257b,  glazed  schist,  inscribed  below  in  cartouche 
.  .  .  men-neb;  257c,  grey  steatite, Koptos;  257d,  violet  glaze, 
XVIII ;  237e— e  6,  carnelian,  XVIII ;  257f,  gold  with  green- 
grey  wax  inlay,  from  Nubia  (pi.  xlvi). 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  11. 

258.    ELECTRIC   FISH   (Malopterurus  electricus). 

Period.     XVIII. 

Figure.  268a — a  7,  (pi.  xlv)  green  (6)  and  violet  (1) 
glaze. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  7. 


262.    SHUTTLE,   OR  WINDING  FRAME. 

Meaning.  Emblem  of  the  goddess  Neit,  one  of  the  four 
divinities  guarding  the  tomb. 

Period.     XXVI. 

Figures.  262a,  agate;  262b,  carnelian,  probably  an 
early  form  of  this  sign. 

Materials.  Carnelian  3,  Veined  quartz  2,  Agate  2, 
Onyx  1,  Alabaster  1,  Limestone  1. 

Collections.  Cairo  7,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  2,  St.  Petersburg  2, 
Price  1,  Alnwick  1. 

263.    WOMAN  WITH  OFFERINGS. 

Period.     XXVI. 

Figure.  263,  light  green  glaze,  woman  wearing  long  flap 
garment  down  the  back,  fringed  at  the  sides,  the  right  hand 
holding  the  horns  of  a  gazelle,  the  left  carrying  a  long  jar 
by  a  top  handle. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

264.    FIGURE   IN   TALL   HEAD-DRESS. 

Period.     Prehistoric  (?). 

Figure.     264,  ivory,  tall  pointed  head-dress,  ears  project- 
ing as  in  figures  of  1st  dynasty,  arms  raised  over  chest. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 


259.    LEPIDOTOS   (Barbus  bynni). 

Najne.     Penpennu  (?),  modern  Binny. 
Meaning.     Sacred  fish  at  Thebes. 
Figures.     See  Cairo  Catalogue. 

Materials.     Green  glazed  stone  5,  Blue  glazed  4.  Green 
glass  1,  Amethyst  1  (all  Cairo),  Sard  1  (Athens). 
Collections.     Cairo  11,  Athens  1. 

260.    SCORPION. 

Name.     Sclk. 

Meaning.  Emblem  of  the  goddess  Selket,  one  of  the  four 
divinities  guarding  the  tomb. 

Period.     Prehistoric  to  XXVI. 

Figures.  260a,  noble  serpentine;  260b,  sard,  tail  broken 
off;  260b  2,  sard,  Tarkhan  ;  260c,  bronze,  with  head  of 
goddess  crowned  with  disc  and  horns,  rising  from  the 
scorpion. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  4,  Edinburgh  1,  blue  glaze. 

261.    GREEN   BEETLE. 

Period.     Prehistoric  to  XII. 

Figures.  261  a,  noble  serpentine  (see  Naqada,  Iviii)  ; 
261a  2,  quartz  crystal,  Tarkhan ;  261b — b  5,  green  glaze, 
Kahun,  Xllth  dynasty. 

Materials.  Green  glaze  6,  Serpentine  1,  Carnelian  1, 
blackened  limestone  1. 

Collections.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  6,  Murch  3. 


265.    FIGURE   IN  LONG   ROBE. 

Period.     Prehistoric  ('?),  XXII  (?). 

Figures.    265a,  alabaster,  with  large   collar,  and  round 
robe  to  feet ;  265b  (pi.  xlv),  ebony. 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

266.    FIGURE   IN  POINTED   CAP. 

Period.     Vlth  dynasty. 

Figures.     286a,  b,  sard,  group  14. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

267.    FLOWER. 

Period.     XXVI  to  XXX. 

Figures.  267a,  blue  glaze,  Memphis  ;  267b,  glaze  faded 
white,  Memphis,  a  button  ;  267c,  green  glaze,  lotus,  XXth 
dynasty  (?)  (pi.  xlv). 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  3. 

268.    PALM   COLUMN. 

Period.    Ptolemaic. 

Figure.     268,  blue  glass  burnt. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

269.    BUNCH   OF   GRAPES. 

Period.    Roman. 

Figure.     269,  blue  glaze,  frothy  and  bad. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  1,  with  221d,  similar  work. 


50 


MISCELLANEOUS    AMULETS 


270.    FLOWERING   REED   (Calamus). 
Period.     Ptolemaic. 

Figure.     270,  blue  and  black  glaze,  Dendereh,  group  21. 
Position.     Chest. 
Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  1. 

271.    SEED   VESSEL. 
Period.     XVIII  to  XIX. 

Figure.  271,  blue  glaze.  Common  on  necklaces  in 
carnelian  and  in  glaze. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  many. 

272.    UNKNOWN  OBJECT. 

Period.     VI. 

Figure.     272  a,  b,  sard. 

Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

273.    TWO   FINGERS. 

Name.    Zebo  ne  dens  rud  (MacG.  58). 

Meaning.    "  Finger  of  heavy  stone,  at  the  girdle." 

Varieties.     Two  fingers  of  right  or  left  hand. 

Period.    XXVI. 

Figures.  273a,  brown  limestone,  gilt ;  273b,  opaque 
obsidian ;  273c,  opaque  obsidian,  right  hand ;  273d,  dark 
purple  glass,  left ;  273d  2,  black  glass ;  273e,  black  glass, 


left;  273f,  black  basalt,  right:  273f  2,  brown  limestone; 
273g,  black  basalt ;  273g  2,  brown  basalt  (?) ;  273h,  light 
blue  glaze,  right,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic,  group  21. 

Materials  (omitting  those  in  Cairo  as  uncertain).  Black 
basalt  8,  Obsidian  6,  Black  glass  8,  Brown  steatite  2,  Blue 
glaze  2,  Haematite  1,  Purple  glass  2,  Brown  glass  1,  Black 
glass  1,  Slate  1,  Brown  limestone  2,  Blackened  limestone  1, 
Brown  basalt  1. 

Position.  Usually  left  side  of  pelvis,  sometimes  base  of 
stomach,  or  middle  of  stomach,  never  higher. 

Collections.  Cairo  80  R,  2  L,  British  Museum  10  R, 
2  L,  Univ.  Coll.  P.  8,  E.  3  (6  R,  2  L),  St.  Petersburg  4, 
Murch  8,  Price  2,  Alnwick  2,  Turin  1. 

274.    UNCERTAIN  PENDANTS. 

Peiiod.    Roman. 

Figures.    274a,  black  steatite;  274b,  brown  haematite. 

Collection.    Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 

275.    STAR. 

Period.     Xllth  dynasty,  Ptolemaic. 
Figures.     27Sa,  blue  glaze,  Xllth  dynasty,  Kahun ;  275b, 
light  blue  glaze,  Dendereh,  group  21. 
Position.     Throat  (1) ;  Stomach  (1). 
Collection.     Univ.  Coll.  P.  2. 


CHAPTER  X 
THE    POSITIONS    OF    AMULETS 


IN  the  preceding  catalogue  the  positions  of  amulets  have 
been  stated ;  and  as  very  few  plans  of  sets  of  amulets  have 
yet  been  published,  it  seems  well  to  set  out  now  the  plans 
which  I  have  long  had  recorded.  These  plans  were  gathered 
at  Hawara,  8  of  the  XXVIth  dynasty ;  at  Abydos,  2  of  the 
XXXth  dynasty ;  at  Nebesheh,  4  about  the  same  age ;  and 
at  Dendereh,  10  of  the  Ptolemaic  age.  The  last  of  these 
groups  was  recorded  by  Mr.  N.  de  G.  Davies,  the  Abydos 
groups  by  my  wife,  and  the  other  three  groups  by  myself. 

The  twenty-four  plans  of  amulet  groups  are  drawn  in 
position  on  pis.  1  to  liii.  Each  plan  has  the  site  at 
the  top  left,  and  the  reference  number  at  the  top  right 
hand.  Down  the  side  of  each  plan  are  letters,  T,  C,  P,  etc., 
indicating  the  position  of  the  lines  of  amulets  upon  the 
mummies,  the  meaning  of  these  letters  being  stated  at  the 
beginning  of  pi.  liv.  This  same  plate  serves  to  find  all 
the  instances  of  any  amulet,  having  first  the  number  of 
the  amulet  in  the  catalogue,  then  the  name  of  the  amulet, 
the  numbers  of  the  plans  in  which  it  occurs,  and  the  letters 
of  the  rows  in  the  plans.  These  last  letters  serve  also  to 
show  at  once,  without  reference  to  the  plans,  at  what  parts 
of  the  mummies  any  amulet  is  found.  The  actual  draw- 
ings here  are  rather  spread  out  for  clearness,  so  that  the 


lower  lines  of  amulets  conic  lower  than  their  exact  places 
on  the  mummies :  one  of  the  closest  is  No.  6,  on  which 
all  the  rows  from  T  to  the  scarabs  and  eyes  in  U,  were  all 
within  12  inches  of  height,  or  from  the  clavicle  to  the 
umbilicus.  The  materials  are  listed  below  No.  1,  and  the 
initial  letters  of  the  material  are  placed  by  the  amulets 
where  the  material  is  recorded.  All  of  the  Dendereh 
amulets,  15  —  21,  are  of  blue  glaze  with  black 
painting. 

As  on  such  a  scale  the  distinctions  of  the  minute 
statuettes  of  gods  would  not  be  clear,  the  names  of  the 
gods  are  stated  instead  of  a  figure.  Some  of  the  figures — 
such  as  the  scarabs — are  only  conventional,  in  order  to 
make  them  as  clear  as  might  be.  There  are  obviously 
certain  changing  fashions  in  the  kinds  and  positions  of 
amulets.  In  the  XXVIth  dynasty  we  see  a  row  of  zad 
signs  across  the  stomach,  above  or  below  them  a  triad  of 
Isis,  Nebhat,  and  Horus.  Rather  later  were  added  the 
counterpoise  at  the  nape  of  the  neck,  and  the  serpent  head 
at  the  throat.  The  mummy  on  the  bier,  the  mourners, 
and  the  lion,  are  Ptolemaic.  Many  other  distinctions 
between  these  different  ages  may  be  noticed  in  the 
arrangements. 


51 


H  2 


THE     POSITIONS     OF     AMULETS 


One  of  the  few  records  of  the  positions  of  amulets  is 
from  one  of  the  priests  of  Amen  (Ann.  Sen-.,  VIII,  35).  As 
this  bore  dates  on  the  linen  of  Pisebkhanu  son  of  Pinezem 
1006 — 952  B.C.,  and  the  8th  year  of  Siamen  1014  B.C.,  it  is 
probably  a  few  years  before  1000  B.C.  All  the  groups  here 
given  are  much  later,  so  this  set  is  important.  On  the 
neck  was  a  string  of  amulets,  an  uzat,  uraeus,  and  vulture, 
of  gold,  scarab  and  engraved  uzat  of  lazuli.  On  clavicle,  a 
hawk  of  gilt  bronze.  Pectoral,  greenstone  scarab.  Um- 
bilical, big  blue  scarab  between  hands.  Over  incision  in 


left  flank,  a  plate  of  copper.  Between  the  legs,  a  papyrus, 
the  usual  position  in  this  age.  Under  the  left  hand,  a  wax 
figure  of  Hapi.  On  left  ulna,  a  long  bead  of  blue  paste  (the 
name  badge  77),  a  scarab  and  an  uzat.  On  a  string  at  the 
side,  probably  intended  to  lay  across  the  chest,  a  uraeus, 
uzat,  scarab,  heart,  zad,  and  two  papyrus  sceptres.  The 
mummies  of  the  XVIIIth  to  XXth  dynasties  have  very 
few  amulets.  In  the  Old  Kingdom  amulets  are  com- 
moner, usually  on  necklaces  and  wrists  (see  Dcshaaheh, 
xxvi). 


PROPERTIES  OF   STONES. 


Besides  the  meanings  attached  to  various  forms  of  amulets, 
the  material  is  also  looked  on  as  having  important  influence. 
Often  the  form  is  disregarded,  so  long  as  the  special  material 
can  be  obtained  ;  a  mere  lump  of  the  required  stone,  or  a 
plain  bead  or  pendant  of  it,  is  sufficient.  These  properties 
attributed  to  the  materials  are  only  recorded  in  general  for 
Italy,  by  Pliny  anciently,  and  by  Bellucci  in  modern  times. 
These  authors  are  referred  to  by  P.  or  B. 

Adamas,  diamond.  For  poison  or  delirium,  P.  xxxvii, 
15. 

Lead.    For  suppuration  in  swine,  B.  viii,  16,  24. 

Pyrites,  crystal.     To  preserve  the  eyes,  B.  viii,  23. 

Haematite,  blood  red.  Reveals  treachery  ;  for  success  in 
petitions,  P.  xxxvii,  60 ;  stops  bleeding,  B.  viii,  17. 

Sidcrites,  black  haematite,  or  meteorite.  Causes  discord 
in  law  suits,  P.  xxxvii,  67;  for  witchery  and  evil  eye,  B. 
viii,  17. 

Apsyctos  (haematite  ?).     Against  cold,  P.  xxxvii,  54. 

Limonite  (hydrous  iron  oxide)  concretion.  For  pregnancy, 
P.  viii,  Am.  19,  Fet.  94—5. 

Sapf>hire.  For  headache :  promotes  contentment,  B. 
v.  26. 

Paeanitis,  like  ice,  quartz  crystal.  For  parturition,  P. 
xxxvii,  66  ;  evil  eye,  B.  x,  Am.  64. 

Amethyst.  For  intoxication,  P.  xxxvii,  15  ;  against  spells, 
hail  and  locusts,  and  for  access  to  kings,  P.  xxxvii,  40. 

Chalcedony,  white,  "  milk  stone."  For  increase  of  milk, 
B.  vi. 

Chalcedony,  red,  "  blood  stone."  For  bleeding,  especially 
of  nose,  B,  vi. 

Opal.  To  strengthen  the  sight.  Jackson,  "Minerals 
and  their  uses." 

Agate,  concentric,  "  eye  stone."   Evil  eye,  B.  vi,  Fet.  52. 

Agate,  Egyptian.     Against  scorpions,  P.  xxxvii,  54. 

Jaspis,  jasper.     For  public  speaking,  P.  xxxvii,  37. 


Heliotropium,  blood  jasper.  For  invisibility,  P.  xxxvii, 
60 ;  to  stop  bleeding,  B.  v,  Am.  18,  Fet.  88,  89. 

Black  jasper,  baetiili  and  kerauniae.  Potent  in  taking 
cities  and  fleets,  P.  xxxvii,  51 ;  against  lightning  and 
evil,  B.  i — iii. 

Staurolite.     Against  witchery,  B.  v.  27. 

Lyncurion,  jacinth  or  yellow  quartz.  Against  jaundice, 
P.  xxxvii,  13. 

Smaragdus,  emerald.  As  amethyst,  P.  xxxvii,  40 ;  for 
parturition,  Jackson. 

Jadeite,  nephrite.     For  kidney  disease,  B.  iv. 

Amianthus.     Against  spells,  P.  xxxvi,  81. 

Garnet.     For  widows,  comfort  in  misfortune,  B.  v.  10. 

Serpentine.  Against  headache  and  serpent  bites,  P. 
xxxvi,  11 ;  xxxvii,  54  ;  disc,  against  reptile  bites,  B.  iv, 
Am.  17  ;  cylinder,  phallic,  against  evil  eye,  B.  iv. 

Soapstone,  white,  mixed  in  water.  For  increase  of  milk, 
P.  xxxvii,  59. 

Malachite,  "  peacock  stone."  Preserves  infants,  P.  xxxvii, 
36 ;  for  evil  eye,  B.  x. 

Alabaster.    For  increase  of  milk,  B.  vi. 

Limestone  disc.  To  get  dirt  from  eye,  B.  viii,  18 ;  with 
dendrite,  against  venom,  B.  viii,  19. 

Selenite.  For  increase  of  milk,  B.  vi;  against  evil  eye, 
B.  x. 

Amber.  For  throat  affections,  P.  xxxvii,  11  ;  on  neck 
for  fevers,  P.  xxxvii,  12 ;  against  witchery,  B.  v. 

Coral,  white,  "  milk  stone."    For  increase  of  milk,  B.  ix. 

Coral,  red.  Evil  eye  and  menstruation,  B.  ix,  Am.  28, 
Fet.  46. 

Ammonite.  Gives  prophetic  dreams,  sacred  in  Ethiopia, 
P.  xxxvii,  60. 

Madrepore.  Evil  eye  and  witchery,  B.  vii,  Am.  33 ; 
worms  in  children. 

Holed  stone.    Against  witchery,  B.  viii. 


52 


LIST   OF   GROUPS   OF   AMULETS 

VARIOUS  strings  of  beads  and  amulets  have  been  bought  GROUP  15.    From  a  few  miles  north  of  Abydos.    148  ; 

which  obviously  belong  together,  by  their  uniformity  of  149f;  170a;  236d. 

style  and  material ;  and  although  the  localities  from  which  GROUP  16.    XXVIth  dynasty  (?).     33e;148f,  g;    148h ; 

they  come  are  not  known,  it  is  desirable  to  keep  the  record  149g;  164c;  170b  ;  194e;  224a. 

of  their  grouping.     Such  are  noted  by  the  number  of  the  GROUP  17.    Memphis,  XXVI,  necklace.     148j ;  175e. 

group  when  described  in  the  Catalogue,  and  the  list  of  GROUP  18.     Sheet  pewter,  figures  stamped.    98c;   149h; 

references  to  each  group  is  given  here.     Groups  1  to  13  180g;  182b;  202e,  e2;  231d,  e. 

belong  probably  to  about  the  Vlth  dynasty.  GROUP  20.    Wax  impressed,  Dendereh,  Ptolemaic.     8a ; 

GROUP  1.     Types  2a;   12a  1—3;  12b,  2,  8;  12c  2—4;  30e;68d;71c;  881;  150a,  b,  b2;  153a;  156a,  a  2;  137d  ; 

15e4;  22f2;  Hid;  138b.  208e. 

GROUP  2.     2b;  !Sa2;  15e5,  G;  lllf,  g,  h  ;  113d;138c;  GROUP  21.     From   various  Ptolemaic  tombs,  Dendereh. 

138h2.  7p;8b;  28d ;  30a;34e;36g;  37f;40b;  58t,u;  59d;  71a,b; 

GROUPS.     2c;   12a,  b,  b4,  c5;  22b;47a;  lllj;  113c,  79c  .  84b  .  87c  .  93^  f.  150C— h  ;  ISSb;  156b;  157f ;  180j ; 

c2;  138j,  J2,  3,  k,  k2;  237c.  182q,  r;  197j ;  2061;  208f;  211k;  219j  ;  224f,  m ;  231c,  f, 

GROUP  4.     170d  ;  205a ;  245j  1—4.  gj  h ;  236aa ;  245u,  ag,  ah,  aj,  aq,  ar,  as  ;  247k  ;  270  ;  273h ; 

GROUP  5.     2d,  e;  27a,  b;  94a  ;  113b;  138h  ;  170c,  c2;  275b. 

219d,  d2,3.  GROUP  22.     13b  ;  145w,  x  ;  1491;  233d. 

GROUP  6.     12a4;  29b;  94b;  206a.  GROUP  23.     16b,b2;161j. 

GROUP?.     If  2;   12a5;  15c3;   22c2,e2;   29a  ;  94a  2  ;  GBOW  24>     Tflu  Amarna,  Roman.     74a,b;133j. 

138d;  138g2  J4;  220a.  GROUP  25.     Kafr  Ammar,  Xlth  dynasty.     247f. 

GROUP  8.     12a  6  ;  22a ;  94c ;  138a  ;  145a ;  206b  ;  236b,  c ; 

2Mk  GROUP  26.     Dendereh,     Ptolemaic.     7n ;    40c,  d  ;    88p ; 

GROUP  9.    2b2;  206c.  92J ;  156c> 

GROUP  10.     22d2;  27b2.  GROUP  27.     Memphis,  jewellery.     16c,  d;    88d,   e,   f; 

GROUP  11.    Ha ;  219k,  k  2.  1Mk- 

GROUP  12.     2f;  206d.  GROUP  28.     49d;88d,e. 

GROUP  13.     12c;  22c  ;  77d  ;  123a;  138f ;  185a— d.  GROUP  30.     Vlth   dynasty.     22g  2  ;    113c;    138e;    185e, 

GROUP  14.     Vlth  to  Xllth  dynasty.     ISf ;  lllc  ;  129a,  f,  f2. 

b,  b  2 ;  138g  ;  18Sg,  h  ;  237cl,  e,  f ;  245h— q  ;  266a,  b.  GROUP  31.     Illahun,  XXVth  dynasty.    34d  2  ;  90aa. 

NOTE.— On  pi.  xl  an  unnumbered  figure,  which  entered  the  collection  after  cataloguing,  has  not  been  described. 
It  is  a  bronze  figure  of  a  hawk  with  ram's  head  and  human  arms.     See  LANZ.,  Diz.  Mit.,  cliii  p.  558. 


53 


INDEX 


A. 

AAXHET,  17 

Ab,  10 

Ablariathanalba,  31 

Ab-nekh,  12 

Abraaax,  30,  31 

Abraxas,  31 

Adamas,  52 

Aegis  of  Bastet,  42 

Agate,  52 

Alabaster,  52 

Algerians,  1 

Altar  with  cakes,  20 

Amber,  52 

Amber  used  for  eyes,  3 

Amen,  37 

Ament,  25 

Ames,  18 

Amethyst,  52 

Amianthus,  52 

Ammonite,  52 

Amphisbaena,  26 

Amset,  39 

Amulet,  origin  of  name,  1 

Ancient  writers  on  amulets,  1 

Anhur,  37,  41 

Animal  gods,  amulets,  43 

,,      headed  gods,  amulets,  39 
Anpu,  2,  42,  46 
Anubis,  30 
4o,  20 
Aoh,  17,  23 
Aorot,  18 
Ape,  seated,  43 

,,     standing,  43 
Apeh,  47 
Aphreni,  30 
Aphrodite,  30 
Apis,  43 
Apsyctos,  52 
Apt,  47 

Arab  use  of  amulets,  1 
Ari,  9 
Ann,  11 
Anns,  two,  11 
Ascending  to  sky,  17 
Atherne  Mino,  30 
Athlathanalba,  30 
Auk  skin  used,  3 
Auo,  20 


B. 


Ba,  14 

Ba  the  divine,  45 


Baboon,  43 

Bak,  48 

Bakhakhukh,  30 

Barbary  sheep,  45 

Bark  of  the  Moon,  17 

Bastet,  46 

Bat,  17 

Bate,  2 

Bat's  head  worn  to  prevent  sleep,  2 

Bear,  wearing  of  part  of,  to  give  strength,  2 

Bearing  of  King's  soul,  16 

Beauty,  emblem  of,  14 

Beetle,  green,  50 

Being,  conferred  by  vulture,  25 

Bell,  28 

Bellucci,  Prof.,  1,  8 

Benefit  of  dead,  1 

Benefits  of  life,  22 

Bennu,  30 

Benr,  20 

Berberete,  30 

Bes,  30,  40,  41 

Binny,  50 

Bird  amulets,  Coptic,  49 

,,     heads,  49 
Bird's  foot,  49 

Blood  of  Isis,  protection  by,  23 
Body,  preservation  of,  22 
Boils,  26 
Bone,  26 
Boni,  Comm.  1 
Book  of  the  Dead  :— 
Chapter  22..  17 
23. .16 
„        25. .21 

26-29B..10 
30..  10,  24 
33.. 25 
36.. 47 
59.. 12 
94.. 21 
„      140.. 32 
„      149.. 49 
„      155.. 15 
„      156.. 23 
„      158.. 20 
„      160.. 13 
„      162.. 20,  30 
,,      163.  33 
„       166.. 15 
„       167.. 32 
Bound  captive,  19 
Breast,  10 
Brinteti  en,  31 
British  Museum,  collection  at,  6 


Bulla,  28 
Bulti,  60 
Bunch  of  grapes,  50 


C. 

Caesarea,  coins  of,  32 

Cairo,  collection  at,  6 

Camel,  45 

Cardium  Edule  shell,  27 

Carthaginian  source  of  amulets,  1 

Cartouche,  21 

Cassia  Nodnlosa  shell,  27 

Casual  connection,  2 

Cat,  46 

,,    and  kittens,  46 
Cats  on  column,  46 
Central  Africa,  use  of  amulets  in,  2 
Chalcedony,  52 
Charm  case,  29 
Charms,  1,  2 

,,        Greek,  stone,  30 
Chief,  amulet  of,  9 
Children  and  amulets,  1 
CM-rlio  cross,  32 
Circle  of  cord,  22 
Clanculus  Pharaonis  shell,  28 
Classes  of  amulols,  6 
Claw,  13 

Cleopatra  Bulimoides  shell,  27 
Clothing,  21 
Cobra  on  case,  20 
Collar,  20 
Combs,  21 

Concretions  in  stone  for  pregnancy,  2 
Conferring  greatness,  14 
Confidence,  2 

Confusion  with  medicines,  2 
Construction  of  charms,  2 
Conns  shell,  27 
Coral,  27,  52 

Counterpoise  of  collar,  15 
Cow,  legs  tied,  20 
Crescent,  23 
Crocodile,  48 
Cross,  32 
Crowned  sun,  17 
Cynaelurus  guttatus,  40 
Cypraea  shell,  27 

D. 

Damaraland,  wearing  of  amulets  in,  2 
Dangers,  to  steer  through,  2,  27 


55 


INDEX 


Date,  20 

Dead,  amulets  for,  15 

Defence,  21 

Definitions  and  limitations  of  subject,  5 

Demzedet,  25 

Denlalium  shell  worn  for  teething,  2 

Deehert,  18 

Dei,  11 

Diffusion  of  amulets,  1 

Digestion,  amulet  for,  30 

Direction  of  thought  to  disease,  2 

Disc  mace,  18 

„    of  sun,  17 
Dish  of  flour  on  mat,  20 
Divinity,  conferred  by  vulture,  25 
Dog,  46 
Dog's  teeth  to   protect  wearer  from    mad 

dog,  2 

Door  bolt,  28 
Double  crown  on  Neb,  18 

,,       of  objects,  2 

Dragon's  head  put  under  door  sill,  3 
Dress  of  living,  20 
Drink  offering,  20 
Duat-mut-ef,  39 
Duckling,  14,  20 
Durability,  emblem  of,  13,  19 
Dwarf,  38 

E. 

Ear,  10 

Electric  fish,  50 

Elevation,  emblem  of,  17 

fioulMieouMi,  30 

Equilibrium,  16 

Erpet  alt,  44 

Eskimos,  2 

Eul-airian,  30 

Eupepti,  30 

Evil  eye,  amulets  to  avert,  2,  4,  26,  27,  28,  29 

Eye,  9,  32,  33 

P. 

Face,  9 

Faith -healer,  2 

Faith  theory  of  cures  due  to  amulets,  2 
Fear,  weakening  due  to,  2 
Feathers  and  scourge,  18 
Fighting  power,  emblem  of,  18 
Figure  in  long  robe,  50 
,,      in  pointed  cap,  50 
,,      in  tall  head -dress,  50 
,,      with  necklaces,  19 
Finding  of  way,  13 
Fish  amulet  worn  for  fecundity,  2 
Fist  clenched,  11 

„  thumb      between     first     and     second 

fingers,  11 
Flour  offering,  20 
Flower,  50 
Flowering  seed,  51 
Fly,  12 

Food  offering,  19,  20 
Forked  lance,  16 

Foxhead  worn  to  ensure  cunning,  3 
Frog,  12 

„       against  chill  of  fever,  3 

,,      and  toad,  12 

,,      meaning  of,  12 


Frog  transfixed  to  ensure  faithfulness,  3 
Future  existence,  1 

G. 

Galactitis,  use  of,  2 
Garnet,  52 
Gazelle,  20 
Girdle  of  Isis,  23 
Goat  sucker,  49 
Oobbo,  38 

Going  among  men,  25 
Goose,  20 
Green  beetle,  50 
Groups  of  goddesses,  35 
Growth  of  amulet  system  in  burials,  5 
Guidance  of  the  flock,  18 
,,         to  the  soul,  42 
Guillemot's  foot  for  proficiency  in  whaling,  3 

H. 

Habu,  49 
Haematite,  52 
Hand  open,  1 1 
Hairdressing,  21 
Hap,  34 
Hapy,  39 
Haqt,  18 
Har,  34 
Hare,  44 

Harpekroti,  30,  34 
Hathor,  37,  38,  40 

,,      the  cow  of,  44 
Hat-mehyt,  38 
Hawk  falcon,  48 

,,      head,  3 

,,      headed  sphinx,  45,  48 
He  Kliaris,  30 
Head  bearded,  9 

,,     bones  of  animals  for  headache,  2 

,,     of  Horus,  35 

,,     restoration  of,  15 
Head-rest,  15 
Hearing,  power  of,  10 
Hedgehog,  47 
Heart,  10 

,,      of  Isis  given  to  deceased,  23,  24 

„      of  Osiris,  36 

,,      pricked  with  pins,  3 

„      worn  as  amulet,  2 
Hell,  18 

Heimskringla  account,  3 
Heliotropium,  52 
Helix  Desertorum,  27 
Hent,  28 
Heqt,  12 
Her,  9 

Her-ne-pot,  38 
Hez,  18,  36 
Hezt,  17 

Hippopotamus,  47 
Holed  stone,  52 
Hor-am-utu,  48 
Horn,  26 
Hornet,  17 
Horus,  30,  34,  35,  39 
Hotep,  20 
Human  soul,  14 


Human-headed  bird,  14 
Hunting,  skill  in,  3 
Hypocephalus,  30 


lad,  30 

laO-la-ila-ma,  31 
Ibis,  49 
Ibex,  45 

Icelandic  sagas,  1 
Ikhankhala,  30 
Illumination,  36 
Intent  to  live,  2 
Isis,  30,  35 

„    Pharia,  35 
Islam,  31 
Italy,  1 

„      use  of  amulets,  4 
Ivory  ball  worn  for  lactation,  2 

,,      tablet  for  fever,  2 

J. 

Jackal  head,  13,  46 

,,      headed  archer,  42 

,,      standing,  46 
Jadeite,  52 
Jaspis,  52 
Joint  of  meat,  20 
Joy,  emblem  of,  15 

K 

Ka,  11 

Kebhieituf,  39 

Keses,  16 

Khal,  30 

KJtat,  21 

KJiens,  45 

Ehep,  11 

Kheper,  23,  24 

Kheret,  25 

Kher-o,  21 

Khet,  17 

Khet-ba-mute/,  43 

Khnumu,  30,  40 

Khonsu,  37 

Kittiwake  head  amulet,  3 

Klipspringer,  45 

Knotted  cord,  29 

Knowledge  and  power  emblem,  18 


Lactation,  milk  white  stone  for,  2 

,,        power  of,  10 
Lead,  52 

,,     amulet  for  swine,  3 
Leg,  11 
Leopard  claw  amulet,  2 

„       head,  13 
Lepidotus,  50 
Life  amulet,  14 
Limestone,  52 
Limonite,  52 
Lion,  45 

Little  auk  skin  amulet,  3 
Living,  power  of,  10,  25 
Lizard,  26,  48 


56 


INDEX 


Lizard  with  forked  tail,  2 
Locust,  14 
Lyncurion  stone,  2,  52 

M. 

Maa-Jies,  41 

MacQregor  papyrus,  6 

Madrepore,  52 

Magic  effect  of  objects,  1 

Mahes,  41 

Malachite,  62 

Malaria,  26 

Malignant  spirits,  2 

Man  kneeling  with  palms,  18 

Man's  girdle  tie,  14 

Mandaite,  32 

Maot,  38 

Marcus,  30 

Masculs,  1,  3 

Mau,  46 

Mazed,  50 

Meaning  of  amulets,  1 

Medusa  head,  28 

Mekhtu,  30 

Meleayrina  maryaritifera  shell,  27 

Men,  18 

Menat,  15 

Mendes,  goddess  of,  38,  49 

Menqaryt,  25 

Mentu,  48 

Menz,  10 

Merneptah,  30 

Mes-zer,  10 

Mikhael,  30 

Min,  37 

Mitra  macuhsa  shell,  27 

Monkhet,  21 

Moon  god,  protection  of,  23 

Mormormi,  30 

Moza,  11 

Mummy,  23 

,,        on  bier,  23 

,,       to  open  mouth  of,  28 
Murex  ternispina  shell,  27 
Mut,  37,  49 

N. 

Name  badge,  21 

,,     of  amulet,  1 
Names,  to  preserve  the,  21 
Nar,  49 

Nature  and  magic  slowly  separated,  1 
Naur,  49 
Nazhi,  13 
Nebhat,  35 
Nefer,  14 
Nefertum,  38 
Nehebka,  49 
Neit,  37,  50 
Nekhekh,  18 
Nems,  21 

Nephrite  stone  for  disease  of  kidneys,  2 
Nephthyi,  30 

Nerita  crattilabrum  shell,  27 
Nert,  25 

Nert-hent-pet-er-remtu,  25 
Nes,  10 
Norse  Sagas,  1 


0. 

Ob,  26 

Objects  to  distract  thought,  2 

Ofef,  12 

Oliva  shell,  2H 

Onkh,  14 

Opal,  52 

Opener  of  the  ways,  42 

Operculum  for  the  eyes,  2 

Opeah,  47 

Oqat,  13 

Oracular  bust,  36 

Osiris,  Isis  and  Horus,  36 

Ostrich,  49 

„       plumes,  16 
Ox  head,  19 
Oxyrhynkhos,  50 


P. 


Paeanitis,  52 
Pair  of  feathers,  17 
Palm  column,  50 
Papyrus  on  a  plaque,  13 

,,       sceptre,  12 
Pear  mace,  18 

Pebbles  to  ensure  fleetness  of  puppies,  3 
Pectoral,  24 

Pectunculus  i-iolace)cen»  shell,  27 
Peh,  13 

Pendant  for  forehead,  29 
Penpennu,  50 
Peseshkef,  28 
Phagrus  eel  on  case,  26 
Phallus,  11 
Ph-nes-khgrphi,  30 

Phoenician  transmission  of  amulet  name,  1 
P/iokhos,  30 
PJiylax,  30 
Pig,  47 

Pisebkhanu,  52 
Pliny,  1,  2,  3 

Plumes,  disc  and  two  horns,  16 
Plummet,  16 

Polinices  mamilla  shell,  27 
Power  of  the  senses,  9 
„      over  property,  22 
,,     to  behold  Ea,  17 
Powers,  amulets  of,  14 
Prase,  10 
Pregnancy,  26,  47 
Primitive     mode     of     thought    regarding 

amulets  unchanged,  4 
Primou,  30 
Prince  seated,  28 
Princess,  28 

Principle  of  arrangement  of  catalogue,  6 
Properties  of  stones,  52 
Property,  amulets  of,  19,  22 
Protection,  25,  28,  35,  42 

„          from  wild  beasts,  13 
Provision  for  writing,  21 
Pskhr,  30 
Ptah,  38 

„     Seker,  38 
Purpose  of  amulets,  1 
Pyrites,  52 


Co.  17 

Qarmut,  49 

Qeb,  11 

Quartan  fever,  protection  against,  24,  26 


Ra,  39 

,,    as  protector,  22 
,,    as  ruler,  22 
,,    four  sons  of,  39 
Ram,  44 
Ram's  head,  44 
Ran,  21 

Rasmussen's  account  of  amulets,  3 
Raven's  foot  for  contentment,  3 
Record,  confusion  with  medicine  in,  1 
Rectitude,  16 

Red  coral  amulet  for  menstruation,  2 
,,    Crown,  18 
„   Sea  pearl,  27 

,,   stone  worn  against  bleeding,  2 
Rel.en,  20 
Rtmtn,  11 
Repoti-hat,  28 
Sera,  47 
Rising  sun,  17 
Ro,  17 

Romun  use  of  name  amulet,  1 
Royal  clothing,  21 
,,     crook,  18 
„     head  dresa,  21 
,,      power  of  Lower  Egypt,  17,  18 
„      of  Upper  Egypt,  17,  18 
,,      scourge,  18 
Rule  in  Haliopolis,  18 


S. 

Sa,  20 

Saau,  47 

Saba,  31 

Sabaoth,  30 

Salkhet,  25 

Sagas,  1 

Sah,  23 

Sailors,  protection  of,  35 

Saints,  38 

Salvation,  32 

Sapphire,  52 

Sat,  48 

Scarabs,  23,  24 

Scorpion,  50 

Seal,  22 

„     ring,  22 
Seated  prince,  28 
Sebek,  42,  48 
Security,  28 
Seden,  21 
Seed  vessel,  51 
Seeing  the  sun,  power  of,  17 
Sekhat,  44 
SekJiemti,  18 
Sekhmet,  41 
Self-reliance,  to  give,  2 


A. 


57 


INDEX 


Selenite,  62 

Selk,  50 

Selket,  38 

Semitic  origin  of  name  amulet,  1 

Seno,  45 

Seqeq,  16 

Sera,  44 

Serapis,  30 

Serapeum,  30 

Svrekh,  21 

Serpent,  25 

,,         head,  25 
,,         headed  god,  43 
,,        with  anas,  49 
Serpent's  skin,  2 
Serpentine,  52 
Sesh-shet,  15 
Seat,  28 
Set,  30,  40 
,,    animal,  46 
Shap,  19 
She»,  22 

Shepherd's  stick,  18 
Shilluks,  1 

Shrew  moxise,  26,  42,  46 
Shu,  37,  42 
Shuti,  16 
Shuttle,  50 
Siderites,  52 
Similars,  amulets  of.  9 
„        doctrine  of,  3 
Si-nehem,  14 
Siren  for  security,  2 
Sistrum,  15 

Skin  of  mouth  of  bear,  worn  in  child's  cap,  3 
Slave  figure,  22 
Sma,  11,  16 
Smaragdus,  52 
Smauti,  18 

Snake  bite,  to  avoid,  25 
Soapstone,  52 
Speaking  and  feeding,  16 
Spearhead,  21 
Sphinx,  male,  40 

,,       female,  40 
Square,  16 

Stability,  emblem  of,  1 5 
Stages  of  human  mind,  1 
Stairs,  17 
Star,  51 
Staurolite,  52 
Stauros,  32 
Stone  implement,  28 

„    inscribed,  Greek  and  non-Greek,  30 


St.  Petersburg,  collection  at,  6 
Strength,  amulet  for,  2,  3 
Sumbel,  30 
Sun  and  uraei,  22 
„     „     wings,  22 
Superstitions,  1 
Sympathetic  magic,  2 


T. 


Tabu,  to  defy,  2 
Tahuti  of  Panebes,  41 

Tat  beberte,  30 

Tasmanians,  1 

Taurt,  26,  47 

Tefnut,  41 

Tehuti,  42,  49 

Tell  el  Yehudiyeh,  30 

Tep,9 

Terebra  consobrina  shell,  28 

Tertian  fever,  26 

Themes,  21 

Themt,  25 

Thet,  20,  23 

Thoth,  31 

Thunderstones,  use  of  in  Italy,  3 

Toad,  12 

Tongue,  10 

,,       of  hyena,  to  prevent  dogs  barking,  3 
Tooth,  13 

,,       worn  for  toothache,  2,  13 
Truth,  impersonation,  38 
Turbo,  operculum,  27 
Turin,  collection  at,  6 
Turtle,  47 
Two  fingers,  51 

,,    hands  side  by  side,  11 

,,    plumes,  disc  and  horns,  16 


U. 

Vas,  18 
Uaz,  12 
„     13 
Ulcers,  26 
Union,  11,  16 

University  College,  collection  at,  1,  5 
Unknown  deities,  37 
Uort,  11 
Upuatu,  42,  46 
Ur,  14 


Uraeus  serpent,  18 
Ur»,  15 
Urlheka,  25 
Use  of  amulets,  1 
Usekh,  20 
Ushabti,  22 
Uzat  eye,  9,  32 


Varieties  of  amulets  used  in  Egypt,  5 
Valour,  emblem  of,  13 
Vase,  20 
Veddahs,  1 
Vicarious  double,  2 

,,         theory,  supposition  of,  2 
Vigorous  action,  1 1 
Voyaging  in  sky,  17 
Vulture,  49 

flying,  49 

,,        standing,  25 

,,       with  wings  spread,  25 
Vulture  and  uraeus,  18 


W. 

Wagtail,  14 
Walking,  power  of,  1 1 
Waran,  48 

Wealth,  emblem  of,  19 
Wearing  of  written  charms,  2 
Whaling,  luck  in,  3 
White  crown,  17 
Will,  power  of,  11 
Woman  with  offerings,  50 
Work,  to,  for  deceased,  22 
Woven  charm,  29 
Writing  tablet,  21 

Y. 

Youth,  emblem  of,  12 

,,       conferred  by  vulture,  25 


Z. 


Za,  14 

Zad,  15 

Zebot,  22 

Zebo  ne  dens  rud,  51 

Zet,  25 


BBADBCKY,   AGHEW,   &  CO.  LD.,   PRINTERS,    LONDON  AND  TONBRIDQE. 

58 


I'/.ATK   I 


**Mfc»-~ 

*•?«•. 


1(2 


* 


7fl 


ib 


Tc 


16 


15, 


14 


13  a 


13  A 


ittn 


SIMILARS:    I 'ARTS.  OK    HUMAN    liODV. 


16  <• 


PLATE  n 


21  b  21  (: 


22 


9          k 


24 


23 


ttff? 


25 


SIMILARS:    ANIMAL   AND    VKGKTABLK 


/•/..;  7 'A  in 


34 


Ttt 


POWERS:    SVMHOLIC:    IIIKROGI^VI'IIS. 


1'I.ATE  V 


69 


70 


PROPERTY  :    FUNEREAL   OFFERINGS. 


PLATE    VI 


78 


a 


84   a 


m 


83  a 


84  b 


ROPERTY  :  j 


POSSESSIONS. 
PROTECTION   CELESTIAL. 


1'I.ATE    VII 


St     i 


PUOTF.CTION  :    MUMMY.    GIRDLK.    FLAT    SCARAR 


1'l.ATE    VI 11 


90 


PROTECTION':    IXSCKIBKI)    SCARAB,    BACKS. 


PLATE  IX 


•  t 

I'ROTl-XTIOX  :    INSCRIBKI)    SCARAB,    FRONTS. 


PLATE   X 


91 


PROTECTION  :    PECTORALS. 


rt.ATl:  XI 


93  e 


93  b 


i 

:_.  «  ^ 


PROTECTION:  SCARAB  WITH  LEGS  AND  WINGS. 


PLATK    -V// 


PROPERTY:    VULTURE,    SERPENT. 


ri.ATK  XI 11 


98  e. 


99  0 


100.    a 


1 00. 


101   C 


1  00.  C. 

1'KOTKCTIOX :    CASES    FOR    RKl'TILKS. 


PLATE  XIV 


108  a 


108* 


109  a 


t  ^ 


111 


\  ,  >^  - 


,+* 


A  4  * 


113 


o 


i 


.-  ~  < 

— 


313 


iff 


112 


111    b 


* 


. 


PROTECTION:  HORN  AND  SHELLS. 


I' I. ATE  XV 


115    *f 


PROTECTION:   SHELLS,   IMPLEMENTS,   FIGURES,   BULLAE. 


/'/.. //'A    AT/ 


130 


PROTECTION  :   FOREHEAD   PENDANTS. 


PLATE  XVII 


131 


"**H  &*rf*c22r*# 

'Xm&m^'f     2>-  •        ^; 

i^aw1*  r      \*r« 


PKOTKCTIOX  :    KNOTTED   CORDS. 


/'/../  X  I: 


131 


PROTECTION:  KNOTTED  CORDS. 


PLATE  XIX 


PROTECTION:    CORDS,    WEAVING,    CHARM    CASKS. 


134 


11.111:    .\\ 


PROTECTION  :    IIVI'OCKI'IIALI. 


/'/..-/  TE  XX J 


135 


136 


1'KOTECTIOX  :    IXSCKIHEI)    STOXES,    GREEK. 


I'l.ATF.    \XII 


136 


•\35aa 


PROTECTION:    INSCRIBED    STONES,    NON-GREEK. 


ri.ATE  XXI II 


136 


I'ROTKCTIOX :    INSCRIBED,    SEMITIC,    CROSS. 


0 


/•/.;//•  xx  ir 


HUMAN    GODS:    EVK   OK    IIOKUS. 


xx y 


HUMAN    GODS':    KVK   OK    IIORL'S. 


I'l.ATK    \.\ri 


a 


HUMAN   GODS:    HORUS,    ISIS. 


'/../ 7  y:".v.vr// 


HUMAN    GODS:    IIORUS,    ISIS,    OSIHIS.    XKHIIAT. 


> 


//.ivy-:  x.\ rm 


HUMAN    CODS:    OSIRIS,    IIKART    OK    OSIRIS. 


PLATE  XX/X 


159 


a 


HUMAN    GODS:    ORACULAR    BUSTS. 


I'l.ATK   XXX 


175  a          175  A 

HUMAN   GODS:    MIN   TO   NEFERTUM. 


l'I..lTE   XXXI 


176 


180 


('HUMAN   GODS:    DWARFS,    SAINTS. 


/•/.//  /•  .v.v.v/y 


n 


o  oo 

AXI.MAL-HKADED   GODS:    FOUR   SON'S   OK    RA. 


ri.ATE  XXX 111 


ANIMAL-HEADED    GODS  :    SET,    SPHINX,    HATIIOR,    KIINUMU,    BES. 


I'l.ATK    .V.V.V/r 


AXIMAL-IIKADKD    GODS:    BKS,    TAHUTI,    MAI  IKS. 


/•/  //•/•  .v.v.vr 


ANIMAL-HEADED   GODS:    ANIIUR   WITH    TKFNUT,    SKKII.MET,    BASTET. 


n.ATK    .V.V.V/7 


200 


ANIMAL-HEADED   GODS:    SHU    WITH    TKKXUT,    JACKAL,    SKBKK,    TAIIL'TI. 


I'l.ATK    \.\.\\- 1 


200 


ANIMAL-HEADED   GODS:    SHU    WITH    TEKXL'T,   JACKAL,    SEHEK.    TAHUTI. 


Pl.ATK  .V.V.Vr// 


207  g 


209  a 


'-•     *>^i      ' 

.oji^ij^BlNsr 

vbf't 


& 


, 


f 


3^^*^   JL-   --. 


/ 


ANIMAL   GODS  :    APE,    BULL,    COW. 


PLATE  XXX  I'll  I 


210 


ANIMAL   GODS:    COW,  SHEKP,    HAKE,    LION. 


/'/..//'A   .V.V.V/.V 


-T^  „ 

223  a 


-      •„..•;•  A  ><>?- 

<>'"/•—'>* 

• ."  --  -.  t.f 
"•'.-•TV,:  :-'••**. 


231    A 


ANIMAL   GODS  :    LION,    CAT,   JACKAL. 


/•/-///•:  .v/. 


211 


236 


^^     ^^^^ 


ff    f    f    f    f 

237^          h 

fill* 


237  TTL 


/•////•.  xi. i 


243 


00 


ay  ap 


ANIMAL   GODS:    RKPTILKS,    BIRDS. 


PLATE    XI. II 


245  h 


250  a 


251 


AXI.MAL   GODS:    HIRDS. 


I'l  .\TE    X  I.I  1 1 


257 


f.-^tH- 
f 
v  170  d 


ANIMAL   GODS,    AND    VARIOUS   OK|K(T.S. 


//..//•/:     AY.//' 


2ft 


ADDKXDA. 


/•/..•//•A  \/.r 


245  tt.A. 


267  c. 


PLATE  Xl.l'l 


10  0 


* 

9 


ADDENDA. 


/•/..; /A  .v/.;v/ 


70  JO 


1397Z2  «?4' 


iilfci 


139T2 


LISTS    OF    AMULETS,    MACGREGOR  PAPYRUS,   AND   DENDEREH.          XLVIII 


a   tt 
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41 


3I 


8 


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L     °   Ox/ 

\\\   <wv\    |<XV_ 


43 


I 


18 


l3 


O 


V    C2ZT3 

F    Q  BD 


OL 


44 


u 


5 


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BRONZE   AMULET.    I35aa. 


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XVX    BA 

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FOUR-       XAB 
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PLANS   OF   AMULETS  ON   MUMMIES. 


HAWA(\A 


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U  P  P  I  R.        <\  K  M 


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L  A  31  U  LI 
BLACK    LIME 
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VV  MIT  E 


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HAWAFsA  & 


D 


HAWARA  13 


D 


II 


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PLANS   OF   AMULETS   ON   MUMMIES. 


Lll 


NEBE&HEH  C 


NEBE5HEH 


N 
C 


D 
U 
V 


DENDEREH 
«.  HI 


DENDEREH 
oU 


DENDEKEH 
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DENDEREH 
54 


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DENDEREH 
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PLANS  OF  AMULETS  ON   MUMMIES. 

20 


DENDER.EH 
I  12. 


DENDEREH 

5~OO 


DENJ3ER.EH 


DENDERE.H 


P.P. 


INDEX   TO    AMULETS    IN   POSITION,   PLS.    L-  LIII 


LIV 


p  O  3  I  T  I    O    NJ  5 

f  F  O  PsE  HEAD 

N  NAPE     OF     NECK 

T~  THROAT 

C  CLAVl  CUE 

P  P  E  C  T  US 

D  D  I  A  PH  KAGM 

\J  u  M  B  ILI  COS 

V  V  EN  TE  R 

M  H  U  M  E  R  US 

Vv/  WRIST 

H  HAND 

R,  L  F  I'NGEKS  ;  R  °*.L 

A  ANKLE 

E  FEET 


7      HEAKT.      No  I    C,P  D,  M.    EC. 
4-T-     5  T,  C  .  6  T,g  P.  IOTPU 
IICJ2.P.-I3C.  14-  P.   16  P, 
ISC  .  2.1  D.  2.3  P.  2.4  U.15-P 

8.   BREAST.      17  P.  |8D?2.0C724\/; 
17   SMA,  10, u, 

)8     FROG.    I  P,W.2.T.  2>P,  5C.  6  U. 
10  P.  II  C  -  12.  P.   13  P 


2>7 


A, 


P.  IOD,U 


II  p.  up.   is  p.  2.3  P    Z4  v  ? 

38KOKK.ED     LANCf.  "QJ"     IP. 

3P.4  P.  5TP.  6PU-7T.  IO  C  . 

39  OSTFMCH   PLUMES  ^  IP. 
ZD.  3c.5~P  6P.7T.  loc.ny.  14V/. 

40C  D  I  SC  +   H  0  PvNS  TQ?    lop. 


2-1 


SCE  PTRE. 
I  F,T  C,P.     ID.     3>  p.    4V[ 

5  P.  6  P.    10,U.  II  V  .  I3VM4R 
15  E  -   IS  P.  2.2.  U.  2.5-  P. 
\PYRUS    PLAQ^UE, 
S"  P.  6  P.  7T.  S  P.  10  C.  I  (  G. 


2.8   H  UMAN-H  EADED     BIR.D. 
1TC.  2-D.  1  2>  p.  1  4.  P.    igp 

BOMANS  GIRDLE-TIE    * 

2.  C       I  5  E 

33>  COUNTER-POISE    ^ 

9  P.  IIT.I1T.  I3N.  14  N 

34    HEAD   REST    §g      IOT. 

IS  E.    IS  P  •   2.0.U 
2>S    ZAD     f    I,T,P  •  2.  C,U    3CP,U. 

4  P  .    S"P.    6P,  D,  U.    7  C  . 

8  D.  9  c,u.   IOT.    1  1  D. 

li  P.D,  U.    14    D,U.    IS  V. 
18  C  .  2-1  U  .    2L4D-2.5R 

10  D 


4.  |      PAIR,  or  FEATHERS    ffi    3  P. 

5  =>,6  P.  10  D.  II,V.  14  V. 
42.  R  IS.  IMG  SUM  CQ3  10  P 
43  DISC  OF  S  U  Nl  Q  5C.6U. 

II  U,  IZ  U.    13  L.  14  L.  (6  U 
45"    BAKK     *B4.     2.  C 

5S     UKAEUS"^     |,P.   2.C.  4  P. 
5"  F  -    12.  P,  D.  13   P,  U,  V  . 

14  F.    15  P  E.   2.0  C,P.    2.Z  V. 

2.5TR 
5~8D   WiNGtD    UPsAEUS.    4.  P. 

63       COW,  LEGS   T  I  ED.      10   P. 

66  DUCK.  3  P. 

70  V  A  S  E  .   I  ,T  . 

71  COLLAR.  |,C.  4  P. 

72  CLOTHING.    SP.JP.    )0  D. 

76     WRITING    TAB  LET.  IP 
4-  P.  5X,P.  7T.  1I,V.  IL  PD. 
78     CA  K.T  OU  C  H  E.5TC.6U  7T 


/9    S  E  A 


95    VULTUKE    SPREAD    I  C   4  P. 
-97    SER.PENT   HEAD.  IJ.9P.  (IT.  I4T 


35"B 


A  R.  E     5"  c.  IOB  . 

!   C,P.     12.  P.     23    P 


I  IM,L-H  ./J.K.5X 
6  R,L.     I  2.  D  .    )2>    P  . 


80    SEAL    M  IM  G     I  L,R».    2.  K, 
5"C,L  • 


81     CiPxCLE    OF   CQR.D.Q.     I,H 

&"7     MUKMY     OM    Bl  EB.  .  !5"U,V 

17  P.   Zl    P.     LA-   UECS. 
88   G  1  R  D  L  E    OF     1  5  !  S    $    I  T,  P. 

2.T.  3  P.   r  P.   6  P.   7  P.    fiC. 

9  CP.   IO  P.  I  I   D.   J2.  U- 

13  P,  U.    I?  E. 
91     PE  CTO  R  A  L.  1 5"  P.  17  P.  19V 

92.    SCARAB    WITH    LEGS.    1  D. 
1PU.   3  C.PD-  4-T.P.  5TP. 
6  T  U.  7  C,  P  D.  &  P.  I O  C  P  D. 
II    P,  I2.P.D.  I3>  P,  L.  I417PL 
|&  V.  2.0  V.  2.1  G  .£5T,RU. 

92.6  HAWK.-H  EADED  sc^R^B 

ID.    IO  B. 
92,  SCARAB -I- WINGS.  9C. 

15-P.V.E  .    l  2  P.  2.0  C.  2.1  C 

2_4  D 
SANAE.OM   LEGS.    /ryE. 

94     VULTUKE     STANDING. 
IT,D.   2-C.   4-  P   25  T 


BULL  A.  I  C  . 
12.8     U2  AT  ^3)  I  F.D.UM.H.  2.T.C. 

3T P.  4- p.  5T.C.P.  6U.7T.  a  p. 

14  F.   IS"  C,P,  V.    2-?  T,  P. 
139    UZAT    IN  5Q.UARE.14T. 

149  IS!  S.   IP.  2.T.RU.  3P.4-P.  SF 

6C,P.  8C,P.  9  P.  10  P.  13  P.  14  P. 

I49&    I5IS  PLAQ.UE.  4  P 

I5T5      ISIS  MOUR>NIMG.    I^C.ZI  P. 

2.Z  P.  Z.3.  P. 
I5"2.    15IS,NEE>HAT,AM»HOKUS.  Z  U. 

3U.6D.  8D.13P.   14  P. 
I5"4    NEBH  AT.    l.P.  2.  P,  U  .  3  P,D. 

4  P.    6  C, P.  8  P.  9  P.  |0  P.  I3R  14  P. 
15^45  NEBHAT     PLAGUE.   4  p. 

I  5"7     O  S  I  P- 1  S     I  5  V,  E  . 

I57POSIMSAND/V\UMMY-    I  £T  U- 

161       M  I  H.    IS  P. 

|6'/     SHU      I  P.  4.  P.  6  U 

168     NEIT.IP    2.R  5"  P.  6  P.  1 4  P. 

172.    MAOT.     I  P.  2.T.P.  3  P.  5" P. 

IO  D  .    17  P- 
174    SELK.   I  P  .    ZT.P.    3  P 

150  HO  KUS  .  H  AWK.-  H  EAD  ED.    IP. 

2,pU.3D.4P.S"P.  6C.8P.  9r> 

10  P.    13  P 

1  8  !      R.A, .   !  P.  IT.  Z  P.  4-  P.  5"P.  6  C,  P. 
I8IB    KA  SEATED  .     10  P 
(82.    4-  SOMS  OF  RA.  9"D.  IS"P.  16  P,V. 

IS  PD.I9  P.  2.0  P.  2. 1  P.2.ZR  2. 3,  R  24V 
I&6    HAT  HO  R.   COW   HEADED.  |T.  9  P 
I  8  J     KH  N!  I.'  M  U .  l  ?  U .  4  p.  5  c  .  5>  p 
I&7BKHMUML    -"•LAQ.UE..    4  P. 

i97  AN:  PU.  9  p.  14  p. 

2.01     SE  Bk."K  .    2_o  D  . 

Z01  TEHUTI.  IP,U.3PD.4P.5-P.6CP8P.|JP 

2O&    HATKOR  COW.  I8V.1OP.2.IV 

2-19    Ll  ON4.  3  P.   I  5- P,  0/I7D.  190.  2.0V. 

2.2.0    LIONS  FOREPARTS  .    3  P.  ~\Z2.  P 

2.Z3  B  U  LLS   FO  R  E  PAPxTi .  4  p. 

214   CA~T.     I5E. 

Z2.I     JACKAL  COUCHANT.gD.ZOD.Uy. 

2.31  B   JACKAL  ON  SH  KIN  £.  19  V.  2.3.  P. 

Z.36    TAURT.   |S"E./8D,V.   2.OD. 

HAWK  .   |  P.  3  C.  14  P.  I5"P,V. 

I  8  CV.  2.0  PD.  22.C    2.4- U. 

Z5  c 
/  C  .  I  5"  D. 


147     IBIS.     Z.I   J5. 
2-70     REED.    18  P. 
Z73    TWO  FINGE  R.S  H.5"V.  6  V. 
\O.V.   II  V.  ILV.   14V.  18  V. 
•2.J5-    STAR,.    IS"  T.     l<?   U. 


THE   AMULETS   AF^E.  SPREAD  OUT 
TOO   Low    I  M     THE 
MS      IN*     O  fkDE  PS     TO 
CLE1AK.  p.   p. 


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